Mal J Nutr 23(1):65 - 80, 2017

Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Malnutrition among Children with Learning Disabilities: A Scoping Review
Nur Hamiza Ruzaini Hashim1, Sakinah Harith2, Raishan Shafini Bakar3 & Nur-Fazimah Sahran1


ABSTRACT

Introduction: By the end of 2015, about 72,152 children with learning disabilities were registered under the Malaysian Welfare Service Department (JKM). Malnutrition has been found to be a common setback among children with learning disability (LD). This study presents available evidence on the prevalence and risk factors associated with malnutrition in children with LD.
Methods: A framework suggested by Arksey & O`Male (2005) was used to carry out this scoping review. Published articles, reviews and reports were identified through a complete search. Inclusion criteria for the search were English articles related to LD, published from 2005 to 2016.
Results: Seventeen international studies published from 2005 until 2015 with a total of 318,596 participants and one study involving 281 participants from Malaysia, were identified and included in this review (n=18). The target age range of the sample in these 18 studies was 2 - 20 years, with a mean age of 3.2 - 14.2 years. The prevalence of underweight among children with LD was 3.4 - 36%, overweight 7.6 - 37% and obesity 5.7 - 52%. Several studies reveal that malnutrition risk among children with LD is significantly associated with gender, age, genetic syndrome, type of disability, medication used, and country economic status.
Conclusion: A number of studies show that children with LD have a higher prevalence of being overweight and obese than typically developing children and the risk associated with obesity significantly increases with age.

Keywords: Children, learning disabilities, malnutrition, prevalence, risk factors

Download full article

March 1995, Vol1 No.1
September 1995, Vol1 No.2
March 1996, Vol2 No.1
September 1996, Vol2 No.2
March 1997, Vol3 No.1
September 1997, Vol3 No.2
December 1998, Vol4 No.1&2
December 1999, Vol5 No.1&2
March 2000, Vol6 No.1
September 2000, Vol6 No.2
Mar/Sept 2001, Vol7 No.1&2
March 2002, Vol8, No.1
September 2002, Vol8, No.2
March 2003, Vol9 No.1
September 2003, Vol9 No.2
March 2004, Vol10 No.1
September 2004, Vol10 No. 2
2005, Vol 11 No.1
2005, Vo l11 No.2
2006, Vol 12 No.1
2006, Vol 12 No.2
2007, Vol 13 No.1
2007, Vol 13 No.2
March 2008, Vol 14 No.1
2008, Vol 14 No.2
2009, Vol 15 No.1
2009, Vol 15 No.2
2010, Vol 16(1)

2010, Vol 16(2)

2010, Vol 16(3)

2011, Vol 17(1)

2011, Vol 17(2)

2011, Vol 17(3)

2012, Vol 18(1)

2012, Vol 18(2)

2012, Vol 18(3)

2013, Vol 19(1)

2013, Vol 19(2)

2013, Vol 19(3)

2014, Vol 20(1)

2014, Vol 20(2)

2014, Vol 20(3)

2015, Vol 21(1)

2015, Vol 21(2)

2015, Vol 21(3)

2016, Vol 22(1)

2016, Vol 22(2)

2016, Vol 22 Supplement

2016, Vol 22(3)

2017, Vol 23(1)