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Soy flour snack bars lower glycaemic response in type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects: A randomised cross-over design
Naufal Muharam Nurdin, Hana Fitria Navratilova, Karina Rahmadia Ekawidyani & Mohamad Yulianto Kurniawan

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2021-0054

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Low glycaemic snacks may help to improve blood glucose control. However, data on the effect of soybean snack bars on postprandial glucose levels of the diabetic population is scarce. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine the effect of consuming soy flour snack bars on glycaemic response (GR) over a 180-minute period in individuals with diabetes by estimating postprandial glucose levels variation and total area under the curve (AUC).
Methods: Nine subjects (age: 54.6±4.0 years; BMI: 25.0±2.5 kg/m2) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) diagnoses without complication enrolled in this randomised, open-label, cross-over trial. On three separate sessions, they consumed glucose standard solution, soy flour snack bar (SF), and wheat flour snack bar (WF) containing 25 g of available carbohydrate, respectively. Finger prick capillary method was executed to measure blood glucose levels at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 minutes after test product ingestion.
Results: Overall, significantly lower postprandial glucose levels were observed at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes (122.3±17.6, 136.3±24.9, 125.7±25.3, and 107.2±24.1 mg/dL; p<0.001) in those who consumed SF snack bars than WF snack bars (147.9±41.3, 168.0±43.6, 152.6±30.0, and 140.6±33.4 mg/dL). The AUC level after the ingestion of SF snack bar was 2044.8±503.1 mg.min/dL, >20% lower compared to ingestion of WF snack bar (4735.0±666.8 mg.min/dL), p<0.001. These glycaemic control benefits can be explained due to the high fibre and protein content linked to the physicochemical properties of SF.
Conclusion: With high nutritional properties, SF snack bar has a low GR and might help control blood glucose in T2DM subjects.
Key words: glycaemic response, hyperglycaemia, snack, soy food, T2DM diet

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Determinants of diet quality among mothers of young children in an urban slum area in Jakarta: Mother’s age, vegetables availability, and eating out frequency
Fitya Safira Birahmatika, Dian Novita Chandra & Luh Ade Ari Wiradnyani

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2021-0031

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Poor diet quality is a major issue, and health concerns may be related to diet. Mothers with young children usually have their meals at home; thus, home food environment plays a role in determining dietary behaviours. This study examined the association between health concerns and diet quality among mothers; additionally, the effect of home food environment on this relationship was assessed.
Methods: This cross-sectional study comprising 229 mothers (aged 19–49 years) with young children was conducted in an urban slum area in North Jakarta. Data were collected via interviews using a structured questionnaire. The General Health Interest Scale and Consumer Behaviour Questionnaire were used to assess health concern and home food environment, respectively. The 24-hour dietary recall method was used to calculate the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) score. Spearman’s correlation, multiple linear regression, and path analysis were used to analyse the data.
Results: Majority of the mothers had poor diet quality (mean DQI-I score, 41.44/100). No significant correlation between health concern and diet quality was observed. After adjusting for age, the relationship between health concern and diet quality was not mediated by vegetables availability or eating out frequency (indirect effect=0.012; p=0.096). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed age as a significant predictor of diet quality (B=0.196; p=0.024).
Conclusion: Diet quality among mothers of young children differed with age and was related to both health concerns and home food environment. Thus, the development of strategies to promote healthy eating based on different age groups is warranted.
Key words: diet quality, healthy diet, home environment, mothers

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Milk supplementation increases mid-upper arm circumference and haemoglobin level among pregnant women in Kupang, Indonesia: Evidence from a regression discontinuity design
Ahmad Syafiq, Sandra Fikawati, Nindhita Priscillia Muharrani & Mardatillah

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2021-0023

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The high prevalence of chronic energy deficiency (CED) and anaemia among pregnant women in Indonesia is worrying. Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT) is one of the provinces in Indonesia with the highest prevalence of CED. This study aimed to determine the effect of fortified milk supplementation on changes in mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and haemoglobin level among pregnant women.
Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted in three locations of Community Health Centers in NTT from May to August 2019. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 69 pregnant women who were divided into two groups based on haemoglobin levels; the intervention group consisted of 31 pregnant women with haemoglobin levels below 11 g/dL, and control group consisted of 38 pregnant women with haemoglobin levels above 11 g/dL. Intervention group was provided with fortified milk supplementation, while control group received education about prevention of CED and anaemia. Data were analysed using regression discontinuity design with haemoglobin of 11 g/dL as cut-off.
Results: Using regression discontinuity method, we were able to determine the effect of milk supplementation based on haemoglobin levels and confirm the result that milk supplementation significantly increased MUAC by 4.69 cm. Despite no discontinuity found, a positive increase of 0.98 g/dL in haemoglobin level was important to note.
Conclusion: Milk supplementation of 300 kcal/day for three months significantly increased MUAC and to some extent, increased haemoglobin level. Thus, it should be considered when planning nutrition programmes to improve the nutritional status of pregnant women.
Key words: haemoglobin level, milk supplementation, MUAC, pregnant women, regression discontinuity design

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Knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) towards anaemia among female university students in Malaysia: A cross-sectional survey
Cheryl Huong, Jing Lin Chua, Rui Yi Ng, Dhanashri Kshitij Panse, Snigdha Misra & Afshan Sumera

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2021-0067

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Anaemia is a common health problem in Malaysia, most common being iron deficiency anaemia (IDA). This study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude, practices (KAP), and health-seeking behaviour (HSB) towards anaemia among undergraduate female students.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 180 female university students from a medical university in Malaysia. Data were collected using an online questionnaire comprising KAP and HSB. SPSS version 25.0 was used for statistical analysis.
Results: Most participants (60%) had an appropriate level of knowledge about anaemia. A positive attitude was shown with adequate awareness of anaemia. A total of 55.5% of participants reported having good health practices. However, 52.9% of the participants consumed less iron-rich foods and 81.7% reported skipping meals. The overall observed healthseeking behaviour was good. A statistically significant relationship was found between knowledge with attitude (p=0.003) and practice (p=0.005). This study observed that the study population had poor nutritional status, long menstrual duration, and vegetarianism. Moreover, infrequent consumption of vitamin C-rich fruits and low iron-folate supplementation were also observed.
Conclusion: A good level of knowledge on IDA among students was noted. However, most of the students showed a lack of positive attitude and good practices towards preventing anaemia. University students are prone to IDA due to a lack of KAP, which can significantly affect health-seeking behaviour. This issue should not be neglected; therefore, implementing intervention programmes to educate students on the preventive measures against the risk factors of IDA is recommended.
Key words: anaemia, health-seeking behaviour, knowledge attitude practice

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