Anthropometry is the single most portable, easily applied, inexpensive and non-invasive method of assessing body composition. It reflects both health and nutrition and predicts performance, health and survival. The use of body mass index (BMI) as a measure of obesity has been widespread and has recently been promoted for assessment of chronic energy deficiency (CED) in adults. This report provides BMI values of 2636 adult males and 2111 adult females from the three main ethnic groups residing in urban areas and BMI of adult Malay and Dayak (380 males and 496 females) residing in rural areas in Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak. The percent prevalence of obesity and CED in males for the three ethnic groups were apparently quite similar. However, in the females, CED were higher in the Malays and Chinese while overweight problems were more serious in the Indians. Among the Malays, prevalence of CED for males and females were 7% and 11% in urban areas and 11% and 14% in rural areas, respectively. In the males, it is interesting to note that there is a two-fold difference between urban and rural, while a high prevalence of overweight women (20%) even in the rural areas should be viewed as a potential health problem of the future.
The objective of this paper is to assess the perception of bodyweight status among the office workers in two government departments in Kuala Lumpur. A total of 385 Malay workers aged between 18 to 55 years were randomly selected from the Prime Minister’s Department and the Ministry of National Unity and Community Development. The weights and heights of all subjects were measured and their Body Mass Index (BMI) determined. In this study, obesity is defined as individuals having³ 25 kg/m2. A questionnaire was prepared to obtained information on socioeconomic status, health aspects, dietary intakes, activity levels and perception on bodyweight status. The study revealed a high prevalence of obesity (38.1 %) and among the obese subjects, 21.7 % perceived themselves as having normal weight. The normal weight and underweight subjects perceived themselves as obese (33.5 % and 6.3 % respectively). A small percentage (5.7 %) of the obese individuals who perceived themselves as obese did not wish to Lose weight. In contrast, 9.7 % of the normal weight subjects who perceived themselves as having normal weight wanted to lose weight. A third person’s perception on the subjects’ bodyweight status is significantly associated with the subjects’ bodyweight status (P<0.05). Among the obese subjects, more men (32.3 %) perceived themselves as having normal weights as compared to the women (12.3 %). This implies that women are more aware of their bodyweight status as compared to the men.
An examination of the fat composition of the diet of a Malaysian urban hostel population obtained by chemical analysis of representative meals prepared by a 7-day rotation menu, revealed both nutritional attributes and limitations when compared against the dietary messages contained in the American Heart Association (AHA) and World Health Organisation (WHO) models. The Malaysian diet supplies 26% kcal i.e. 66 g total fat (51 g vegetable fats, 15 g animal fats) and contains <300 mg cholesterol, which are below the upper limits for these dietary constituents in the AHA and WHO models and conflicts with the perception that Malaysians in general, may be consuming too much fat and cholesterol. The supply of essential fatty acids (EFA), however, appears sub-optimal at 3.2% kcal mainly due to the comparatively low content of both the omega-6 (linoleic acid) and omega-3 [alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoate (EPA) and docosahexaenoate (DHA)] fatty acids in the Malaysian diet. The estimated omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio of 10 further reflects an imbalance of these two families of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which can be corrected to a ratio of 5 to 7 by moderate increases in the consumption of fish, soyabean-based foods, and pulses and nuts. Considering the current status of knowledge on the health effects of the different families of fatty acids, the ratio of 2:3:1 for the saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and PUFA in the diet is judged to improve fat intake and nutrition in Malaysians. Such a dietary fatty acids ratio can be satisfied by the use of a cooking oil containing 28% SFA, 53% MUFA, and 19% PUFA, which may obtained by the judicious blending of palm olein with MUFA-rich and PUFA-rich vegetable oils. Alternatively, moderate increases in the consumption of marine fish, pulses, nuts, soybean-based foods and their products would also serve the same end.
Food consumption of 50 female students in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia was recorded for 7 days. Foods and drinks most frequently consumed were selected for analysis of iron, zinc, copper and lead content. The mean daily intakes of energy, protein, carbohydrate and fat among the students are 6.5±1.4 MJ (1550±335 kcal), 59.8±18.5g. 227. 1±54.6 g and 46.0±11.5 g respectively. This diet contributed 19.6±6.4 mg Fe, 7.0±2.0 mg Zn and 1.6±0.6 mg Cu per day which were lower than the Malaysian RDA for Fe and US RDA for Zn, while Cu is within the recommended range. The main sources of these minerals in the student’s diet were rice, rice products, meat and animal products. Lead concentration in the diet (134±77 ug/day) is below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) value suggested by Codex Alimentarius Commission (1984). This study indicated concern regarding the low intake of the essential trace elements on long term basis among the students.
As Malaysia is moving towards a rapidly developing economy, its elderly population is also expected to increase not only in numbers and proportion but also in their life expectancies. This demographic shift from a relatively young population to one that includes an increasing number of old and very old age group presents a real challenge to nutritionists and health professionals. The challenge is to maintain a healthy and vigorous elderly population who can lead fulfilling and independent lives. Health promotion and disease prevention efforts, including nutrition education, targeted towards this group can contribute important elements in meeting the challenge. The objective of the study was to assess the nutrition education needs of a sample of elderly Chinese in an urban area. The sample consisted of 34 males and 36 females, whose age ranged from 55 to 86 years. They were generally affluent and well-educated with a mean income of RM101 1.86 and 8.0 years of formal education. A self-administered questionnaire which requires 20 to 30 minutes to complete was used to collect the information. The results of the nutrition knowledge assessment indicated that the typical respondent correctly identified 16 of the 22 nutrition knowledge statements. A majority (91.4%) of the respondents recognized the fact that tomato, dark green leafy vegetables, and orange juice are good sources of vitamin C, while the statement on vitamin supplementation was correctly answered by only 15.7% of the respondents. The mean nutrition knowledge score was 26.14 with a range of between 18 and 36. The t-test indicated a significant difference (t=3.63, p_0.05) between males and females in their nutrition knowledge scores, with the males having higher mean scores. Although only 8.6% of the respondents reported they had participated before in a nutrition education programme, a majority of them believed that nutrition education can improve the nutritional and health status of the elderly. A majority (80%) of the respondents mentioned newspaper articles as their source of nutrition information, while only 8.6% indicated the dietitian as their source of information. However, the doctor was identified as a more creditable and reliable source of information by a majority
A survey was carried out in the district of Kemaman, Terengganu, Malaysia to study infant feeding practices in rural and semi-urban communities. A total of 593 mothers were interviewed and their socio-demographic information recorded. Data on infant feeding practices were collected from mothers who had children up to 15 months of age. Among breast-feeding mothers (n =157), 42.0 % fed their babies for less than 3 months and 58.0% bottle fed for more than 6 months. Sixteen children were found to be fed on sweetened condensed milk with 62.5% of them for the first 3 months. Among those who breast fed their babies, 40.1% were found to have bottle fed at one time or another. The majority of breast feeding mothers belonged to the groups having incomplete primary schooling or completed primary education only and household income below RM600 per month. A substantial number of breast fed babies were given weaning foods in the form of porridge mixture (rice + egg, rice + vegetables, rice + meat, rice+ fish and cereals) between the age of 0 - 3 months. The findings of this study concluded that although breast-feeding is widely practiced, however, their duration has dwindled, and early introduction of solid foods is widespread.
As part of a series of studies on the analytical and nutritional aspects of carotenoids and retinoids in foods, seventeen types of legumes and their products and 9 tubers and starchy roots were studied for their carotenoid composition and content by HPLC. All samples were saponified and subsequently chromatographed using a reverse-phase HPLC method previously developed in this laboratory in which carotenoids were separated isocratically on an octadecylsilane (C18) column using a ternary mixture of acetonitrile, methanol and ethyl acetate (88:10:2) as the mobile phase. Carotenoid peaks obtained were tentatively identified using 6 reference standards similarly chromatographed. The HPLC method used enabled the separation and quantitation of the major carotenoids present, namely, lutein, cryptoxanthin, lycopene, g-, a- and b-carotenes. For most of the legumes, the major carotenoids detected were b-carotene, lutein and cryptoxanthin. Lutein was found in all the legumes studied, and was clearly the major carotenoid in most of the legumes, followed by unidentified carotenoids, b-carotene and cryptoxanthi. The other carotenoids were encountered infrequently and at low levels. The starchy roots and tubers gave a different carotenoid composition from those obtained for the legumes: lycopene and b-carotene were detected in all the samples except in sago. There was no clear pattern of carotenoids present in the samples studied. Compared with the vegetables and fruits, the carotenoid concentration in legumes, tubers and roots were found to be much lower. None of the items studied can be said to be good sources of vitamin A. Nevertheless, they are still of nutritional import flee, if consumed in significant amounts.
Male Malin x Polled Dorset crossbred sheep were stall-fed with grass (10%) and PKC (90%) and supplemented with either zinc at 500 ug/g, as zinc sulfate (PKC+Zn group) or zinc (113 ug/g) and ammonium molybdate (500 ug/g) (PKC+Zn+Mo group) or unsupplemented diet (PKC group) for 20 weeks. Another group which acts as a control was fed with a diet consisting of corn and fish meal (2 0%) and grass (80%). The animals were monitored daily and the body weights were recorded at a period of two weeks intervals throughout the trial. Blood samples were also collected for mineral analysis. At the end of the trial the animals were slaughtered. The carcasses were examined for gross lesions, whilst the right liver lobes and renal cortex were isolated for histopathological evaluation and mineral analysis. All animals in the PKC group died before the end of the trial with the main clinical signs of generalised jaundice and haemoglobinuria. The kidneys were firm, enlarged and reddened or darkened. Histologically, the hepatocytes were swollen, vacuolated and necrotized, particularly at the periacinar zone. Hepatic fibrosis was observed at the periportal zone. Cellular swelling, vacuolation and necrosis were found in the tubular epithelial cells of the renal cortex. Neither clinical signs nor gross or remarkable histological lesions were observed in the other groups of animals. The hepatic, renal and blood copper levels In the PKC group were elevated when compared to the control. Addition of zinc either with or without ammonium molybdate in PKC diet inhibit the copper content in the organs, however the zinc contents were increased. The average daily gain of the PKC group was remained consistent to those of the other groups, except it was reduced starting at about 1 to 2 weeks prior to death. It was concluded that feeding PKC In excess in sheep can cause chronic copper toxicity. However, this effect can be prevented by dietary zinc supplementation either with or without ammonium molybdate.
Per capita consumption of meat and meat products in Malaysia more than doubled from 15.70 kg in 1970 to 35.71 kg in 1990. This increase in meat consumption is mainly due to the rapid development and wide acceptance of value added meat and poultry products amongst Malaysian consumers. Meat products such as burgers, sausages, hotdogs and nuggets are widely accepted and consumed by all ethnic groups at home as well as in the fast food restaurants. The significant expansion of the fast food industry and the increase consumption of processed meat products makes it necessary for a re-evaluation of the nutritional quality of popular meat products currently available in the market. This review paper described the quality of some processed meat products, their proximate composition, meat quality, use of non meat proteins and binders, and the use of additives in the formulation of burgers, frankfurters, nuggets, bologna, chicken and beef balls. Preliminary results on the protein efficiency ratio of local meat products seemed favourable but this study is limited to only one laboratory. In vivo and in vitro protein digestibility studies indicated high values on the digestibility of locally manufactured meat products. Proximate analysis of the raw materials used in the formulation of such products showed many with high fat and low protein contents being utilized. The meat content was lower than the minimum amount stated by the food regulation. This paper concludes that due to lack of information and studies on the nutritional composition of processed meat products, concerned bodies should take positive steps to generate reliable data to elucidate the actual nutritional composition of such products. It is also observed that many by-products from the animal industry from non-conventional sources are increasingly being utilized in the manufacture of processed meat product.
The purpose of this study was to develop a visual aid to improve and increase accuracy of the 24-hour recall method. This aid in the form of a booklet, consists of life-sized photographs of common Malaysian foods, accompanied by the weight of its edible portion and nutrient values. These photographs used together with the recall method were tested against the weighed record method for its validity. For this preliminary test, a total of 23 photographs of food items were tested. Sixty healthy adult volunteers were selected as respondents for the test. These respondents were divided into 2 groups. Each group was given either a simple or complicated menus. The respondents were served 3 test meals: breakfast, lunch and tea. Each food item served and plate waste were weighed and recorded. The 24-hour recall was conducted the day following the weighed record day. The results of the paired t-tests indicated no significant difference in group’s mean weights of food intake between the weighed record and recalled method for 13(57%) of the foods tested. The correlation coefficients between the two methods showed a moderate to strong positive relationships for 17 out of the 23 food photographs tested (ranged from r=0.49-0.92, p<0.01). Analysis on the nutrient intake for simple menus showed high correlation coefficients between both methods for all nutrients tested, r=0.62-0.95, p<0.01. For the complicated menus, the correlation coefficients were slightly lower than the simple menus, ranging from r=0.38-0.71, P<0.0l. Except for the fat intake in the complicated menus, all the correlation coefficients between the two methods reached 0.5 and above for both types of menus.
Kajian di empat buah perkampungan nelayan di Daerah Semporna, Sabah mendapati sejumlah 55 spesies hidupan marin intertidal dijadikan sumber makanan. Pengutipan dilakukan semasa air surut dengan menyertai penduduk tempatan yang sering mengutip hidupan laut ini. Kampung terlibat ialah Kg. Panji, Kg. Bangau-Bangau (kawasan penempatan baru kaum Bajau Laut), Kg. air dan Kg. Kebimbangan. Pencaman spesies berdasarkan kaedah ilustrasi dan juga dengan merujuk di muzium-muzium tempatan. Nama tempatan untuk setiap spesies diperolehi daripada penduduk pesisiran pantai. Jumlah bilangan spesies yang dikutip bagaimanapun tidak sama antara kampung. Hasil analisis kimia berdasarkan kaedah A.O.A.C. ke atas beberapa spesies menunjukkan perbezaan nilai nutrien dan kandungan unsur surih serta plumbum.
Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk menilai taraf pemakanan kanak-kanak di FELDA Sungai Koyan, Pahang. Ukuran antropometri telah dijalankan di atas 105 orang kanak-kanak yang terdiri daripada 62 lelaki dan 43 perempuan berumur 12 hingga 72 bulan. Daripada jumlah kanak-kanak tersebut, maklumat pengambilan makanan ke atas seramai 84 kanak-kanak yang berumur 4 hingga 6.9 tahun dilaksanakan. Faktor sosio-ekonomi yang dapat mempengaruhi taraf pemakanan kanak-kanak juga dikaji. Hasil ukuran antropometri kanak-kanak mendapati sebanyak 14.3% (n=15) kanak-kanak mengalami kekurangan berat badan, 10.5% (n=11) kebantutan dan 2.9% (n=3) kesusutan berdasarkan Rujukan NCHS, manakala terdapat 28.6% (n=30) kanak-kanak mempunyai ukuran lilitan lengan kiri yang rendah berdasarkan rujukan Frisancho yang menandakan kekurangan simpanan kalori dan protein. Dari segi kajian diet bagi kanak-kanak lelaki dan perempuan yang berumur 4-6.9 tahun, purata pengambilan kalori, kalsium, niasin dan tiamin adalah bawah paras yang disyorkan untuk Malaysia. Walau bagaimanapun, pengambilan protein, ferum, vitamin A, riboflavin dan vitamin C adalah melebihi paras saranan. Dari segi kekerapan pengambilan makanan, kajian menunjukkan jenis makanan yang paling kerap diambil adalah seperti nasi, ikan, susu dan daging. Makanan seperti sayur-sayuran dan buah-buahan juga kerap diambil oleh kanak-kanak. Berdasarkan kepada ujian korelasi Pearson terdapat perkaitan yang bererti antara taraf pemakanan kanak-kanak (berat ikut umur dan ketinggian ikut umur) dengan pendidikan ibu dan bilangan anak, manakala tahap pengetahuan pemakanan ibu juga menunjukkan perkaitan yang bererti di antara taraf pemakanan kanak-kanak (berdasarkan berat ikut umur).
Pengambilan kalori yang tidak mencukupi merupakan salah satu faktor penting yang menyebabkan malnutrisi protein-tenaga. Masalah ini juga dipengaruhi oleh faktor sosio-ekonomi seperti tahap pendidikan dan pengetahuan pemakanan ibu serta bilangan anak dalam isirumah. Ibubapa seharusnya digalakkan untuk melibatkan diri dalam aktiviti yang menambahkan pengetahuan pemakanan dan menggalakkan amalan pemakanan yang baik. Pihak FELDA digalakkan mengadakan lebih aktiviti tersebut.
Rural communities in nutritional transition: emergence of obesity, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia as public health problems in three kampungs in Bagan Datoh, Perak Tony Ng Kock Wai, Tee E Siong and Azriman Rosman
This paper highlights the marked presence of nutritional disorders in a sample (190 males, 237 females, aged 18-80 years) obtained from the adult population in three kampungs i.e. Pasang Api, Sungai Nipah Baroh and Sungai Balai Darat, in the Mukim of Bagan Datoh, Perak in 1992. All subjects (except pregnant females) were measured for blood pressure, weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference from which the body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratios (WHR) were calculated. A random blood sample was obtained by finger-prick from each subject and analysed for total cholesterol (TC) and glucose, using the Reflotron compact analyser. Elevated means for BMI and WHR indicated that obesity (BMI ≥30.0) was a serious public health problem in these three kampungs, affecting about 5% of males and 14% of females. Another 24% of males and 46% of females had an overweight problem (BMI 25.0-29.9), indicating that on the average, about half the adult population in these kampungs were either overweight or obese. This contrasted with the situation a decade ago in similar-type kampungs in the Peninsula where underweight was the major nutritional disorder in adults, especially males. Overall, there was a shift of an underweight problem to one of overweight, as exemplified by increments of 2.0 to 3.0 BMI units in the adult population, with the phenomenon being more marked in the females. Hypertension (21%) and hyperglycaemia (6.5%) affected the males and females approximately equally. Female adults had higher mean plasma TC compared to males (204 versus 199 mg/dl); these means were some 20 mg/dl (0.52 mmol/L) higher than the corresponding means for adults in similar rural communitites in the early eighties, and approximate the corresponding means for present-day urban adults. The above findings serve to emphasise the nutritional transition undergoing in the rural communities in the Peninsula, viz, the marked emergence in these rural communities of nutritional disorders normally associated with affluent populations.
Seventeen members of the national sepaktakraw squad undergoing centralised training participated in a comprehensive study to determine their daily food intake, activity patterns and energy requirements. Food intake was recorded as a mean of 3-days weighed food intake and the nutrient contents were calculated using a local food composition table. The energy cost of standardised activities was determined by indirect calorimetry while time and motion study was used to estimate the daily energy expenditure of each subject. The mean daily energy intake was 2784±373 kcal (11.6±1.6 MJ) while the mean daily energy expenditure was 3004±298 kcal (12.6±1.2 MJ), with a negative energy balance of 220 kcal ((0.9 MJ). Intake of other nutrients were adequate when compared with the Malaysian RDA, with the exception of niacin. The results of the activity pattern study indicated that the subjects spent about 80% of the day doing light activities while 20% of the day was devoted to their training programme comprising of moderate to heavy activities. This data set represents the first of its kind in Malaysia and should provide impetus for further research in this area which would help establish dietary guidelines for Malaysian sportsmen.
The determination of serum vitamins having antioxidant properties has gained in importance in recent years. This is mainly due to the observation that an inverse correlation exists between blood levels of these vitamins, including retinol, carotenoids and tocopherol, and diet-related chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease and cancers. This laboratory has been carrying out a series of studies into the nutritional and analytical aspects of retinol and carotenoids. A simple reversed-phase HPLC method has been developed in an effort to improve methodologies for the separation and quantitation of carotenoids and retinol in foods and biological specimens, especially blood serum. As an extension to these studies, trials were carried out to determine the feasibility of analysing tocopherols using the same chromatographic procedure. With the addition of another detector wavelength, the same procedure detected and quantitated 3 major tocopherols simultaneously with retinol and five carotenoids. Within-day and between-day precision of the procedure was satisfactory. Trials carried out were able to improve recovery of the vitamins. Experiments conducted also showed that the addition of ascorbic acid to the extracting ethanol was beneficial for the analytical procedure. The presence of peroxide in ethyl acetate used in the chromatography mobile phase caused drastic destruction to the vitamins analysed. The addition of ascorbic acid during sample preparation was able to inhibit this destruction. The method was used for the analysis of sera from 65 apparently healthy Malaysians with a mean age of 52.8 years (range 24-76 years). Mean retinol concentration of the group was 69.8 ± 18.8 µg/dl. The mean β-carotene concentration of the subjects studied was 33.8 ± 24.3 µg/dl, while the mean total carotenoid concentration was 180.2 ± 3.0 µg/dl. The most abundant carotenoid in the serum samples studied was lutein, comprising about one-third of all carotenoids quantitated. The concentrations of δ- and γ-tocopherols in the serum samples studied were too low to be identified with certainty and quantitated accurately. The mean α-tocopherol level was 1840 ± 528 μg/dl. For retinol, α-tocopherol and most of the carotenoids determined, there was no statistically significant difference in the mean levels between male and female subjects as well as among the three different ethnic groups. Results obtained in this study were very similar to those previously reported by this laboratory. It is hoped that more data on the serum concentrations of these vitamins can become available for various population groups, including during various disease conditions.
The objective of the present experiments are to determine if sheep could safely consume high amount of PKC in their diets and if sheep’s consumption of PKC require a chelating agent to tie up the high copper level in PKC to protect it against toxicity. Two experiments were carried out. Experiment 1, with four treatment groups of animals, using from 30 to 100% PKC, mixed with other feed ingredients except minerals. Mineral mixtures were separately mixed with Sodium Molybdate, acting as the chelating agent, and the mineral was offered in separate feed troughs ad.libitum, in the pens for each animal group. Although all groups gave high ADG, the animals in the 100% group had high copper in their blood, which were above4 the normal physiological level at the end of the experimental duration of three months. Three animals from this group died and their liver copper contents were very high. The groups fed up to 72% PKC in their ration did not show any significant elevation of copper or toxicity. Sheep fed similar proportions of ingredients in experiment 2, but with Molybdate incorporated together into all the four similar rations as in experiment 1, did not show any signs of toxicity or elevated blood copper. The animals in all groups produced high ADG. The experiment proved that sheep can take up to 100% PKC in their diet, but a chelating agent must be incorporated into the feed to ensure its sufficient uptake to protect it against toxicity. Giving Molybdate separately from the feed would not ensure sufficient intake of the chelating agent voluntarily. This would result in copper toxicity in the animals.
Vitamin A, or retinol, is an essential nutrient for man and all mammalian species since it cannot be synthesised within the body. Deficiency of the vitamin results in adverse effects on growth, reproduction and resistance to infection. The most important manifestation of severe vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is xerophthalmia, and irreversible blindness may eventually occur in one or both eyes. VAD is still an important micronutrient deficiency problem in many developing countries, afflicting large numbers of pre-school children. It is often associated with protein-energy malnutrition, parasitic infestation and diarrhoeal disease. For many communities in developing countries, the major source of vitamin A in the diet is carotenoids. These compounds are synthesised only by photosynthetic microorganisms and by members of the plant kingdom where they serve important functions in metabolism, including participating in the photosynthetic process. These pigments also provide aesthetic qualities as colourants in the plant and animal kingdoms. Most importantly, the carotenoids serve the animal kingdom as sources of vitamin A activity. Major advances have occurred in understanding the role and mechanisms of action of carotenoids. They are now thought to play specific roles in mammalian tissues related to their function in plants. Carotenoids, with their highly reactive conjugated double bonds, act as free radical traps or antioxidants and may play an important role in the prevention of cancers. In view of the wide medical importance of carotenoids, much attention has been given to the determination of these pigments in foods as well as blood. Carotenoids in foods have conventionally been analysed using the open-column chromatography technique, but the highpressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method is now gaining in importance as well. The classical method for the determination of carotenoids in blood is by the spectrophotometric method while the HPLC method is also recommended for use. An example of an HPLC method developed for the simultaneous determination of retinol and carotenoids in food and blood is given. The determination of retinol and carotenoids should be further developed in view of the wide importance of carotenoids in health and disease.