The purpose of this study was to determine trypsin inhibitor (TI) activity in sweetpotato and soy flour diets and their effects on the growth and lipid metabolism of hamsters. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed different types of dietary protein containing casein, soyprotein, transgenic sweetpotato plus soy flour (TSPF+SF), nontransgenic sweetpotato (NTSPF) plus soy flour (NTSPF+SF), transgenic sweetpotato (TSPF) and nontransgenic sweetpotato flour for 28 days. The TI activity was highest in TSPF+SF (19.30 TIU/mg) and NTSPF+SF (17.20 TIU/mg) diets that induced growth retardation in animals, lowest in TSPF (5.80 TIU/mg) and NTSPF (5.50 TIU/mg) diets, which did not affect the growth of the animals, and negligible in casein (<1.00 TIU/mg) and soyprotein (2.00 TIU/mg) diets. Plasma total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations were significantly higher in hamsters fed the casein diet compared to those fed the soy protein, TSPF+SF, NTSPF+SF, TSPF and NTSPF diets. A positive correlation was observed between plasma TC concentrations of hamsters and dietary methionine, lysine, leucine content and methionine/glycine ratios. Liver TC and TG concentrations of hamsters fed casein were significantly higher than those of all other diet groups. The supplementation of sweetpotato flour with soy flour increased both protein and TI activity in the diets and the lipid metabolism of hamsters were unaffected by TI activity.
Food insecurity exists whenever people are not able to access sufficient food at all times for an active and healthy life. This study used the Radimer/Cornell hunger and food insecurity instrument to assess food insecurity and to determine the risk factors and consequences of food insecurity among low-income households in Kuala Lumpur. One hundred and thirty-seven Malay pre-school children (4-6 years old) from Taman Sang Kancil were measured for their weights and heights. Questionnaires were used to collect food security and socioeconomic information on the households. The findings indicated that 34.3% of the households were food secure, while 65.7% experienced some kind of food insecurity, (27.7% households were food insecure, 10.9% individuals were food insecure and 27.0% fell into the child hunger category). The prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting were 44.5%, 36.5% and 30.7% respectively. The prevalence of high weight-for-height (overweight) was 13.1%. Based on multinomial logistic regression, larger household size (OR=1.418; p<0.01) and lower educational level of mothers (OR=0.749; p<0.01) and fathers (OR=0.802; p<0.05) were found to be significant risk factors for food insecurity. The study, however, did not find any significant difference in children’s nutritional status according to household food security levels. It is recommended that for the Malaysian population, the Radimer/Cornell hunger and food insecurity instrument should be modified and further validated with various ethnic groups in a variety of settings. The validation should include the appropriateness of the statements to the target grounds and their different risk factors and outcomes of food insecurity.
It is essential to replace fluids lost so as to remain well hydrated during exercise. The intake of fluids is considered a physiological ergogenic aid to enhance exercise performance. There are currently several products in the market that are believed to have ergogenic properties which act as fluid replacement drinks during exercise. One such drink available in the Malaysian market is ‘AgroMasâ’ herbal drink whose efficacy is yet to be proven. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the effects of acute ingestion of this herbal drink (H) or a coloured water placebo (P) on cycling performance. Nine healthy and trained young male cyclists (age: 16.2 ± 0.5 years) exercised on a cycle ergometer at 71.9 ± 0.7% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) until exhaustion on two occasions at 1-week intervals. During each exercise bout, subjects received 3ml kg-1 body weight of H or P every 20 min in a double-blind randomised study design. There was no significant difference between H and P trials in the total work time to exhaustion (83.7 ± 4.6 and 81.5 ± 5.0 min respectively). Changes in oxygen consumption, heart rate and perceived rate of exertion were similar for both types of drinks. These results demonstrate that the herbal drink and the placebo elicited similar physiological responses and exercise performance during endurance cycling. It is therefore concluded that AgroMasâ herbal drink and water ingestion resulted in a similar ergogenic response on cycling performance in young cyclists.
The trial was carried out at a commercial pig farm in Bukit Pelanduk, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The objective of the study was to assess the efficacy of supplemental iron in drinking water and iron in paste form in comparison with the iron dextran injection. A total of 12 litters were used divided into three treatments : iron dextran injection (ID), Fedexx“ – iron in paste form (IP) and Opti-iron“ - iron in drinking water (IW). Hemoglobin level and growth performance parameters were monitored weekly over a period of 28 days. ID piglets had significantly higher (p < 0.05) body weight and weekly weight gain compared with IW piglets at 21 and 28 days of age whereas no significant different (p > 0.05) results were found between IP and IW piglets. Hemoglobin level from days 0 to 28 showed statistical difference (p > 0.05) between piglets in IP and IW groups. Mild anemia was found in IP piglets but not for ID and IW piglets compared with normal value (> 9 g/dL). Hemoglobin (Hb) levels were positively correlated (p < 0.05, r = .47) with body weight at 28 days of age. In conclusion, pigs supplemented with iron in paste form and drinking water had poorer growth performance than iron dextran injection piglets. Piglets given iron in paste form had mild anemia. It is advisable to give multiple doses of oral iron to piglets in order to prevent iron deficiency anemia.
During the first 4 weeks of life, the body weights of the piglets increased by up to 5-fold. The dietary requirement for iron during this period is 7 mg per day but only 1 mg per day can be supplied by the sow’s milk (Cunha, 1977; Miller & Ullrey, 1997; Roberts, 1998). The need to provide the piglets with an adequate amount of iron before weaning is therefore imperative because sow’s milk alone will not meet the iron requirements of rapid growth and expanding blood volume (Hannan, 1971).
Several different methods can be used to offer iron to preweaning piglets. The most common administration method for iron in piglets is through an intramuscular injection of iron dextran complex at 3 days of age. A single dose of 200 mg/ml iron-dextran is effective against iron deficiency anemia. However, the method is very stressful to the piglets. They will suffer more pain if a greater dosage of iron is given intramuscularly. Furthermore, poor iron injection techniques may cause considerable trauma to the muscles, staining of hams or create abscesses and lead to downgrading of the carcasses (Roberts, 1998).
Since there are several drawbacks to the iron injection, alternative methods need to be considered in intensive farming i.e. supply iron orally (Miller & Ullrey, 1997). The oral administration of iron has two advantages: cost and the fact that absorption is regulated by the intestinal mucosae. However, oral administration requires multiple doses. This is because a single dose may not be sufficient to protect the piglets from iron deficiency anemia for the first 4 weeks post-partum. The iron bioavailability in oral iron depends greatly on iron status of animals (Amine et al., 1972; Susan & Wright, 1985). In addition, dietary factors such as amino acids and protein sources (Martinez et al., 1981), pectin content, phytate (Morris & Ellis, 1982) and the other minerals (Elvehjem & Hart, 1932; Hedges & Kornegay, 1973; Suttle & Mills, 1966) may also influence the bioavailability of iron. Oral iron can be given as paste or drinking water. Early administration of oral iron within the first few days of life will meet the iron needs of the suckling pig. However, it is critical to administer early before gut closure to large molecules (Harmon et al., 1974; Thoren-Tolling, 1975). This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of iron supplementation in drinking water or paste form in comparison with the injection of iron compounds in suckling pigs.
Bahan pendidikan memainkan peranan penting dalam menyampaikan maklumat pemakanan yang tepat kepada masyarakat. Kajian ini dilakukan untuk menilai penerimaan golongan dewasa muda terhadap bahan pendidikan pemakanan bercetak. Booklet bertajuk Kolesterol: Apa yang anda perlu tahu? disediakan khusus untuk kajian ini. Kajian ini terdiri dari tiga fasa iaitu fasa tinjauan dan perancangan, fasa pembentukan serta fasa penilaian bahan pendidikan yang disediakan. Seramai 90 orang subjek di kawasan bandar dan luar bandar telah dipilih secara rawak untuk kajian ini. Borang soalselidik diedar bersama bahan bercetak yang diberi kepada subjek kajian. Subjek diberi masa selama dua minggu untuk memahami dan menilai bahan bercetak yang diberi. Penilaian penerimaan subjek terhadap isi kandungan, grafik dan rekabentuk bahan bercetak adalah daripada memuaskan sehingga baik. Skor pengetahuan subjek di kawasan bandar dan luar bandar meningkat dengan signifikan (p<0.05) selepas menerima bahan bercetak (84 + 12 dan 80 + 13) berbanding sebelum menerima bahan bercetak (66 + 11 dan 49 + 12). Secara keseluruhan, bahan yang dibentuk mendapat penerimaan yang baik oleh golongan dewasa muda dan berupaya meningkatkan pengetahuan.
Introduction: Food and nutrition are of paramount importance to
sustainable human development. Where
there is poor nutrition one finds a woefully in
adequate formation and utilization of human
capabilities. Malnutrition, if it does not lead to
death, has profound consequences that extends
not only into later life, but also into futu
re generations. Among the adverse effects of
malnutrition are increased morbidity, mental
impairment, reproductive difficulties, physical
disability, reduced work productivity and increased susceptability to diet-related adult disease.
Total body bioelectrical impedance is a measure for total body water. From total body water the fat free mass and, by difference with body weight, the fat mass (body fat percent) can be calculated. Prediction formulas for body fat percent based on impedance assume a constant hydration of the fat free mass, an assumption that might be violated in individuals, thus resulting in biased individual predictions. The electrical properties of the human body depend on water distribution between extra- and intra-cellular space and also on geometrical water distribution. In addition, body build factors also influence total or segmental impedance values. As body build and water distribution can differ between populations, impedance formulas aiming to quantify water compartments or body fat percent should also be population specific. In addition other factors like body position, skin and/or body temperature and osmotic values of the body fluids have an impact on the measured impedance values. This, together with likely disturbances in body water distribution in patients, makes the quantitative use of impedance in clinical practice difficult and prone to misinterpretations.
For the prediction of body fat percent in populations, the method can be suitable. But, as there are differences in body build between (ethnic) population groups, for example in relative leg length and in slenderness, it is likely that that prediction formulas have different bias across ethnic groups. This means that for meaningful comparisons between population groups, formulas have to be validated in these groups.