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Factors influencing malnutrition in Filipino elderly
Nancy A. Tandang, Reanne Len C. Arlan & Gerard C. Navarro

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2020-0051

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The elderly population is susceptible to malnutrition due to the physiological and functional changes caused by ageing. Hence, to prevent the degenerative nutritional conditions of the elderly and improve their quality of life, this study aimed to determine the influencing factors of malnutrition among Filipino elderly.
Methods: Anthropometric component data from the 8th National Nutrition Survey (NNS) were utilised along with the nutritional status of Filipino elderly, based on body mass index as the dependent variable and variables from the clinical and health, dietary, and socioeconomic components of NNS as explanatory factors. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was then performed in fitting models.
Results: High magnitude and severity of malnutrition were observed among Filipino elderly – 20.2% were underweight and 24.8% were overweight. Significant influencing factors in estimating an elderly’s odds of being underweight were the elderly’s age group, presence of hypertension, presence of anaemia, and adequacy of vitamin A intake. Whereas, significant influencing factors in estimating an elderly’s odds of being overweight/obese included highest educational attainment, presence of anaemia, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidaemia.
Conclusion: Knowing the influencing factors may help the elderly become more aware and conscious of their health, as well as to promote nutrient intakes to prevent malnutrition that can worsen their health conditions. Additionally, concerned institutions in the country could use the findings of this study as one of the bases in strengthening their approach and implementation or even provide relevant and timely policies and programmes that address malnutrition in the elderly of this country.
Key words: Multinomial logistic regression, nutritional status, elderly

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Validation and dimensional analysis of the eating behaviour pattern questionnaire among Malaysian university students
Maryam Kheirollahpour, Asma Ahmad Shariff, Amir Feisal Merican & Mahmoud Danaee

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2020-0005

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Eating behaviour pattern is among the key behavioural factors that contribute to eating disorders. Hence, to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the Eating Behaviour Pattern Questionnaire (EBPQ) that is used in epidemiological studies to measure the relationship between health outcomes and eating behaviour patterns, this study aimed to validate the adopted version of the EBPQ and to check the validity and reliability of this tool in University of Malaya, Malaysia.
Methods: Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to determine the most appropriate factor structure of EBPQ. Moreover, structural equation modelling (SEM) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were applied to examine the convergent and discriminant validity of EBPQ. As for the participants of the study, multi-stage random sampling was used and 200 students (109 females and 91 males) from University of Malaya were chosen.
Results: The EFA yielded nine components of EBPQ including emotional eating, eating outside, cultural habit, low-fat eating, meal skipping, snacking, healthy eating, planning for food and sweets, which explained 67.7% of the total variance. Furthermore, the Cronbach’s α was about 0.8 for all components, which exhibited a high internal consistency among the obtained components. The results showed that the questionnaire had sufficient convergent and discriminant validity.
Conclusion: The EBPQ was proven to be a reliable tool to measure the eating behaviour patterns in Malaysian university students. The presence of adequate validity and reliability supports this instrument’s psychometric properties for future studies.
Key words: Eating Behaviour Pattern Questionnaire, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modelling

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‘MAPAGI’ video game upgraded breakfast attitude among urban elementary school children in West Jakarta, Indonesia
Dudung Angkasa, Riri Amanda Pratiwi & Idrus Jus’at

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2019-0127

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Skipping breakfast may contribute to poor academic and nutritional status among school children. The current study aimed to determine the effect of the ‘MAPAGI’ (Makan Pagi Bergizi) interactive video game on elementary student’s breakfast knowledge and attitude.
Methods: This was a quasi-experimental equivalent group study with a pre-post test control group design. In total, 228 students aged 9-11 years were drawn by proportional stratified random sampling from two urban schools and were distributed equally into intervention (IG) and control groups (CG). Both groups were administered with similar printed media for 10-15 minutes. Video game was delivered only to IG for two consecutive days, 30 minutes each day. Pre-test (PT0) was performed a day before leaflet administration, while post-test was performed twice – after leaflet administration (post-test 1/ PT1) and a week after the last video game (post-test 2/PT2). Paired, independent t-test and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were employed to answer the research questions.
Results: The mean changes (PT1-PT0 and PT2-PT0) in knowledge score for IG (4.82±2.53 and 3.25±2.47) significantly differed compared to CG (1.75±2.66 and 1.25±2.69). The mean changes in attitude score for IG (7.16±7.17 and 7.34±7.11) also significantly differed compared to CG (2.83±6.58 and 2.64±6.90). After adjustment for potential confounding factors, there was still a significantly greater score in children’s knowledge and attitude after a week’s administration of MAPAGI video game in IG.
Conclusion: ‘MAPAGI’ improved school children’s knowledge and attitude, which may lead to the good behaviour of having breakfast.
Key words: Breakfast, nutrition education, knowledge, attitude, video game

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Effect of polydextrose-containing beverage on bowel habits and gastrointestinal symptoms of constipated subjects: a pilot study
Mohamad Yulianto Kurniawan, Nourmatania Istiftiani, Lilis Heryati, Christian Reinaldo & Fendy Susanto

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2019-0052

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Indonesians have a low intake of dietary fibre, a key component for an increased incidence in constipation. Available data have documented the benefits of polydextrose (PDX) in healthy subjects. However, data on constipated subjects are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the effect of consuming a PDX (prebiotic) beverage on bowel habits and gastrointestinal symptoms of constipated subjects over seven days.
Methods: This was a randomised, non-blinded, nonplacebo- controlled parallel design study involving 24 subjects, divided equally into two groups. Group A (active control group) consisted of 12 subjects, consuming one serving size of 6g PDX beverage. While Group B (intervention group) consisted of 12 subjects, consuming two servings of the same product, containing 12g PDX beverage. Changes in bowel habits (constipation score, stool frequency and stool consistency) and gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal pain, bloating and flatulence) were monitored.
Results: Within seven days, Group B showed 4.9% more reduction in overall constipation mean score than that of Group A. Positive improvement in gastrointestinal symptoms were reported: i.e. abdominal pain (ΔM = -0.08±0.43), bloating (ΔM = -0.29±0.37) and flatulence (ΔM = -0.17±0.47). Majority of subjects had desirable stool frequency (87.5%, >3 defecations/week) and stool consistency (58.3%, type 4). These improvements were due to the fact that PDX provides physiological effects consistent with prebiotic fibre, which alters the gut microbiota composition during the fermentation cycle in the large intestine.
Conclusion: Findings of this study suggested that daily PDX beverage consumption effectively improved bowel habits, with fewer constipated subjects reporting of gastrointestinal symptoms.
Key words: Bowel habits, constipation, dietary fibre, gastrointestinal symptoms, polydextrose

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Validation of the Turkish version Power of the Food Scale (PFS) for determining hedonic hunger status and correlate between PFS and body mass index
Akçil Ok Mehtap & Hayzaran Melisa

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2019-0129

ABSTRACT

Introduction: This study was carried out to determine the validity and reliability of the Turkish culture-adapted version of “Power of the Food Scale” (PFS), which was originally developed by Lowe et al. (2009). In addition, associations between body mass index (BMI) and PFS scores were assessed.
Methods: The study sample consisted of a total of 363 volunteering students aged >18 years, who were studying at the Bas¸kent University in Turkey. Validity and reliability analyses were conducted for the Turkish version of the PFS.
Results: The correlations of each item in the PFS with the total score were found to be positive and >0.30. The Cronbach’s alpha value was determined as 0.85. The construct validity of the scale was analysed with confirmatory factor analysis. The Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index was 0.97 and the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation was 0.07. These fit indices of the model confirmed the construct validity of the PFS. A positive and statistically significant correlation was found between BMI values of the students and the total score of the scale (r=0.157; p=0.003).
Conclusion: The findings obtained in this study have laid out that the Turkish Power of Food Scale (T-PFS), which was adapted to Turkish culture from PFS, is a valid and reliable measurement tool that can be applied in Turkey. Thus, T-PFS is thought to be likely to contribute to studies aiming to determine the status of hedonic hunger.
Key words: Hedonic hunger, power of food scale, Turkey university students

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