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Knowledge, attitude, practice (KAP) and dietary intake of young university athletes following sports nutrition education
Nur Najiah Zaidani Kamarun Zaman, Ayu Suzailiana Muhamad & Mohd Rahimi Che Jusoh

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2020-0098

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Nutrition plays a vital role in sports. Athletes must understand the importance of diet and ensure that they meet the nutrient requirements to enhance sports performance. The lack of understanding in sports nutrition will lead to poor dietary practices that can cause detrimental effects on athletic achievements. This study aims to evaluate the effects of knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding sports nutrition and dietary intake among young university athletes.
Methods: Twenty-one local university athletes (23.8±3.4 years) were recruited, and their anthropometric and socio-demographic data were assessed. All participants attended a 1-day sports nutrition class. The KAP-Sports nutrition questionnaire was administered. Three days of dietary intake were also recorded at the same timepoints among the participants.
Results: There was a significant increment (p<0.05) in the mean scores for KAP among the participants. Total energy and total carbohydrate intakes per day were significantly increased (p<0.05). However, overall protein and fat intakes did not improve as the readings were higher than the recommended values.
Conclusion: In this study, sports nutrition education improved participants’ KAP, but not the actual dietary intake. Changes in habit require more effort, with extra attention on protein and fat intakes.
Key words: Knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP), dietary intake, sports nutrition education, athletes

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SHORT COMMUNICATION

Recommendations to promote breast milk feeding and enhance nutritional care for preterm infants in the Asia-Pacific region: highlights from a roundtable discussion of key opinion leaders
Fook-Choe Cheah, Tian-Lee Tan, Ursula Herulah, Charisma Dilantika, Leilani Muhardi, Girish Deshpande, Rinawati Rohsiswatmo, Satish Saluja & Ruurd Van Elburg

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2020-0124

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Preterm infants are vulnerable to nutritional deficiencies, thus optimal nutrition is crucial in promoting growth among these infants. However, socio-cultural complexities and limited resources in the Asia-Pacific demands a judicious approach in implementing nutritional care that is pragmatic to align with current evidence-based recommendations.
Methods: A roundtable meeting was held in Jakarta in 2017 for key opinion leaders in neonatology from the Asia- Pacific to discuss issues when delivering nutritional care in this region and the unique circumstances encountered.
Results: Priority areas discussed include: (i) breast milk feeding, (ii) donor milk bank/sharing, (iii) human milk fortification, and (iv) nutrient-enriched breast milk substitutes. Socio-cultural practices impeding breastfeeding, insufficient maternity leave, the religious issue of milk kinship, and limited availability of specialty nutritional care products were among the most challenging factors.
Conclusion: The group proposed recommendations to enhance breastfeeding uptake, accessibility to a complete portfolio of specialty nutritional care products, and encouraging more active collaborations to engage policy makers in addressing these contemporary issues.
Key words: Breastfeeding, donor human milk, human milk fortifier, milk kinship, preterm infant

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Dietary diversity and nutritional status of 2 to 5 years old children in households with and without home gardens in selected districts in Siem Reap province, Cambodia
Liny SEK, Aimee A. Sheree Barrion, Clarissa B. Juanico, Josefina T. Dizon & Hurtada A. Wilma

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2020-0041

ABSTRACT

Introduction: There is a high prevalence of malnutrition in Cambodia during the past 10 years. One of the programmes implemented to secure household food security in order to alleviate malnutrition was home gardening. This study aimed to compare the nutritional status of 2 to 5 years old children in households with and without home gardens.
Methods: Twenty-five households with home gardens and 60 households without home gardens were sampled.
Results: The households sampled had a mixed type of home garden with three to five crop varieties occupying 20 to 200 square meters area. The purpose of the garden was to increase vegetable consumption and produce additional income. Results showed that 72% and 65% of the children resided in households with and without home gardens, respectively. Majority had medium dietary diversity score, i.e. consumed four to five different food groups per day. Except for stunting, higher prevalences of undernutrition (32%) and wasting (8%) were observed among children residing in households with home gardens compared to children in households without home gardens.
Conclusion: There were no associations for dietary diversity score and nutritional status of children from households with and without home gardens. Among the sociodemographic and economic factors, age, sex, family size, and vegetable consumption were significantly associated with dietary diversity score and nutritional status of the children.
Key words: Home garden, dietary diversity score, nutritional status

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Environmental enteric dysfunction, soil transmitted helminthiasis and stunting among 36- to 59-month-old children in Quezon Province, Philippines
Angelina R. Bustos, Carmelita M. Rebancos, Corazon VC. Barba, Victorio B. Molina, Merlyne M. Paunlagui & Nancy A. Tandang

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2020-0043

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is relevant in public health as it is a potential cause of child stunting. In the Philippines, stunting affects 33.4% of children in 2015. As of date, no local studies on EED exist. This study primarily aimed to determine the prevalence of EED, soil transmitted helminthiasis (STH) and stunting; and their relationships.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 120 children aged 36-59 months old in Quezon Province, Philippines. EED was assessed via glucose hydrogen breath test with a cut-off of >20 ppm over baseline by 90 minutes suggestive of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), a biomarker of EED. Kato Katz Technique was used to determine STH. Stunting was determined using the 2006 World Health Organization Child Growth Standards. Descriptive and correlation analyses of data were done at 10% level of significance. The study received approval from the National Ethics Committee of PCHRD-DOST, Philippines.
Results: Data on expired hydrogen level of <20ppm were documented. The prevalence of STH among children were 38.1% for Ascaris lumbricodes, 15.3% for Trichuris trichiura, and 1.7% for hookworm infections. A high rate of stunting at 40.0% was observed. There was a significant positive association between stunting and the presence of Ascaris (p=0.01).
Conclusion: There was no case of EED detected in the study. The severity of stunting was high at 40.0%. Among the STH, the prevalence of 38.1% children having Ascaris lumbricodes was alarming in terms of morbidity control. Nutrition interventions including WASH practices and the use of anthelminthic drugs need to be intensified to address stunting and STH.
Key words: Environmental enteric dysfunction, stunting, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, soil transmitted helminthiasis

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Comparison of anthropometric profile, bone-related parameters, biochemical parameters, functional capacity, and vitamin D status – A study on postmenopausal Malaysian women
Mitra Soma R & Abidin Nurdiana Z

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2020-0080

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The optimal level of total 25(OH)D in Malaysian postmenopausal women that is necessary to ameliorate the combined effects of decreased bone mineral and muscle mass, and increase in adiposity, as seen in osteosarcopenic obesity, is unknown. Given that these are common pathologies existing in bone, muscle and excess fat-related disorders, this study investigated the association between body composition, functional capacity and total 25(OH)D levels.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 117 postmenopausal Malaysian women aged 50-88 years. Total 25(OH)D was analysed by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay CMIA on Siemens® platforms. Bone mineral was measured by broadband ultrasound attenuation. Functional performance was assessed using modified components of short physical performance battery test. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 25.0).
Results: Overall, 47% women were vitamin D deficient; 3% had none, 22% had one, 65% had two, and 10% had all three adverse body composition indicators (osteosarcopenic obesity). Individuals without any adverse body composition indicator had higher total 25(OH) D (74.7±7.0nmol/L, p=0.004) compared to all the other groups [1 (53.0±3.8nmol/L); 2 (48.7±1.9nmol/L) and 3 (58.3±5.4nmol/L)]. The single inflection point (ROC curve) for total 25(OH)D in predicting osteosarcopenic obesity was 58.9nmol/L.
Conclusion: Higher vitamin D levels were associated with lower body fat, enhanced bone quality, and improved functional capacity. Maintaining vitamin D levels above >58.9nmol/L may protect Malaysian postmenopausal women against the combined pathologies of bone, muscle and excess fat.
Key words: Vitamin D, osteosarcopenic obesity, postmenopausal, Malaysian women

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Association between dietary intake, physical activity and stress level with constipation among undergraduate students
Nor Baizura Md. Yusop & Nor Qubbul Ain Mohamed Yasin

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2019-0099

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Constipation is one of the most common health problems among university students. This study aims to determine the association between sociodemographic characteristics, dietary intake, physical activity, and stress level with constipation among undergraduate students.
Methods: The study was a crosssectional study and the participants comprised of 140 undergraduate students (27.9% males and 72.1% females). A 3-day dietary record was obtained to determine energy, fibre and fluid intakes, while physical activity was determined using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Stress level and constipation were assessed using the Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale and Agachan’s Constipation Score System Questionnaire, respectively. Data were analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 23. Multivariate linear regression analysis was done to determine factors that were associated with constipation.
Results: Mean age of the participants was 20.9±1.5 years old and majority were third year students (32.1%). Mean intakes of energy, dietary fibre, and fluids per day were 1567±438kcal, 5.6±3.5g, and 2301±946ml, respectively. The median score for physical activity was 1135.5 METminutes/ week. Most of the participants (77.1%) had a high or a very high stress level and 64.3% had slight constipation. Age, dietary fibre, fluid, energy, and perceived stress scale explained a significant amount of the variance in the occurrence of constipation [F(6.133)=16.373, p<0.001, R2=0.425, R2 Adjusted=0.399].
Conclusion: Age, energy, fluid and fibre intakes, as well as perceived stress were factors that were associated with constipation among undergraduate students. Therefore, undergraduate students should be encouraged to practise a healthy lifestyle to modify these identified risk factors.
Key words: Constipation, energy intake, dietary fibre, fluid intake

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