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Factors influencing malnutrition in Filipino elderly
Nancy A. Tandang, Reanne Len C. Arlan & Gerard C. Navarro

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2020-0051

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The elderly population is susceptible to malnutrition due to the physiological and functional changes caused by ageing. Hence, to prevent the degenerative nutritional conditions of the elderly and improve their quality of life, this study aimed to determine the influencing factors of malnutrition among Filipino elderly.
Methods: Anthropometric component data from the 8th National Nutrition Survey (NNS) were utilised along with the nutritional status of Filipino elderly, based on body mass index as the dependent variable and variables from the clinical and health, dietary, and socioeconomic components of NNS as explanatory factors. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was then performed in fitting models.
Results: High magnitude and severity of malnutrition were observed among Filipino elderly – 20.2% were underweight and 24.8% were overweight. Significant influencing factors in estimating an elderly’s odds of being underweight were the elderly’s age group, presence of hypertension, presence of anaemia, and adequacy of vitamin A intake. Whereas, significant influencing factors in estimating an elderly’s odds of being overweight/obese included highest educational attainment, presence of anaemia, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidaemia.
Conclusion: Knowing the influencing factors may help the elderly become more aware and conscious of their health, as well as to promote nutrient intakes to prevent malnutrition that can worsen their health conditions. Additionally, concerned institutions in the country could use the findings of this study as one of the bases in strengthening their approach and implementation or even provide relevant and timely policies and programmes that address malnutrition in the elderly of this country.
Key words: Multinomial logistic regression, nutritional status, elderly

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Validation and dimensional analysis of the eating behaviour pattern questionnaire among Malaysian university students
Maryam Kheirollahpour, Asma Ahmad Shariff, Amir Feisal Merican & Mahmoud Danaee

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2020-0005

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Eating behaviour pattern is among the key behavioural factors that contribute to eating disorders. Hence, to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the Eating Behaviour Pattern Questionnaire (EBPQ) that is used in epidemiological studies to measure the relationship between health outcomes and eating behaviour patterns, this study aimed to validate the adopted version of the EBPQ and to check the validity and reliability of this tool in University of Malaya, Malaysia.
Methods: Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to determine the most appropriate factor structure of EBPQ. Moreover, structural equation modelling (SEM) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were applied to examine the convergent and discriminant validity of EBPQ. As for the participants of the study, multi-stage random sampling was used and 200 students (109 females and 91 males) from University of Malaya were chosen.
Results: The EFA yielded nine components of EBPQ including emotional eating, eating outside, cultural habit, low-fat eating, meal skipping, snacking, healthy eating, planning for food and sweets, which explained 67.7% of the total variance. Furthermore, the Cronbach’s α was about 0.8 for all components, which exhibited a high internal consistency among the obtained components. The results showed that the questionnaire had sufficient convergent and discriminant validity.
Conclusion: The EBPQ was proven to be a reliable tool to measure the eating behaviour patterns in Malaysian university students. The presence of adequate validity and reliability supports this instrument’s psychometric properties for future studies.
Key words: Eating Behaviour Pattern Questionnaire, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modelling

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‘MAPAGI’ video game upgraded breakfast attitude among urban elementary school children in West Jakarta, Indonesia
Dudung Angkasa, Riri Amanda Pratiwi & Idrus Jus’at

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2019-0127

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Skipping breakfast may contribute to poor academic and nutritional status among school children. The current study aimed to determine the effect of the ‘MAPAGI’ (Makan Pagi Bergizi) interactive video game on elementary student’s breakfast knowledge and attitude.
Methods: This was a quasi-experimental equivalent group study with a pre-post test control group design. In total, 228 students aged 9-11 years were drawn by proportional stratified random sampling from two urban schools and were distributed equally into intervention (IG) and control groups (CG). Both groups were administered with similar printed media for 10-15 minutes. Video game was delivered only to IG for two consecutive days, 30 minutes each day. Pre-test (PT0) was performed a day before leaflet administration, while post-test was performed twice – after leaflet administration (post-test 1/ PT1) and a week after the last video game (post-test 2/PT2). Paired, independent t-test and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were employed to answer the research questions.
Results: The mean changes (PT1-PT0 and PT2-PT0) in knowledge score for IG (4.82±2.53 and 3.25±2.47) significantly differed compared to CG (1.75±2.66 and 1.25±2.69). The mean changes in attitude score for IG (7.16±7.17 and 7.34±7.11) also significantly differed compared to CG (2.83±6.58 and 2.64±6.90). After adjustment for potential confounding factors, there was still a significantly greater score in children’s knowledge and attitude after a week’s administration of MAPAGI video game in IG.
Conclusion: ‘MAPAGI’ improved school children’s knowledge and attitude, which may lead to the good behaviour of having breakfast.
Key words: Breakfast, nutrition education, knowledge, attitude, video game

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Effect of polydextrose-containing beverage on bowel habits and gastrointestinal symptoms of constipated subjects: a pilot study
Mohamad Yulianto Kurniawan, Nourmatania Istiftiani, Lilis Heryati, Christian Reinaldo & Fendy Susanto

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2019-0052

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Indonesians have a low intake of dietary fibre, a key component for an increased incidence in constipation. Available data have documented the benefits of polydextrose (PDX) in healthy subjects. However, data on constipated subjects are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the effect of consuming a PDX (prebiotic) beverage on bowel habits and gastrointestinal symptoms of constipated subjects over seven days.
Methods: This was a randomised, non-blinded, nonplacebo- controlled parallel design study involving 24 subjects, divided equally into two groups. Group A (active control group) consisted of 12 subjects, consuming one serving size of 6g PDX beverage. While Group B (intervention group) consisted of 12 subjects, consuming two servings of the same product, containing 12g PDX beverage. Changes in bowel habits (constipation score, stool frequency and stool consistency) and gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal pain, bloating and flatulence) were monitored.
Results: Within seven days, Group B showed 4.9% more reduction in overall constipation mean score than that of Group A. Positive improvement in gastrointestinal symptoms were reported: i.e. abdominal pain (ΔM = -0.08±0.43), bloating (ΔM = -0.29±0.37) and flatulence (ΔM = -0.17±0.47). Majority of subjects had desirable stool frequency (87.5%, >3 defecations/week) and stool consistency (58.3%, type 4). These improvements were due to the fact that PDX provides physiological effects consistent with prebiotic fibre, which alters the gut microbiota composition during the fermentation cycle in the large intestine.
Conclusion: Findings of this study suggested that daily PDX beverage consumption effectively improved bowel habits, with fewer constipated subjects reporting of gastrointestinal symptoms.
Key words: Bowel habits, constipation, dietary fibre, gastrointestinal symptoms, polydextrose

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Validation of the Turkish version Power of the Food Scale (PFS) for determining hedonic hunger status and correlate between PFS and body mass index
Akçil Ok Mehtap & Hayzaran Melisa

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2019-0129

ABSTRACT

Introduction: This study was carried out to determine the validity and reliability of the Turkish culture-adapted version of “Power of the Food Scale” (PFS), which was originally developed by Lowe et al. (2009). In addition, associations between body mass index (BMI) and PFS scores were assessed.
Methods: The study sample consisted of a total of 363 volunteering students aged >18 years, who were studying at the Bas¸kent University in Turkey. Validity and reliability analyses were conducted for the Turkish version of the PFS.
Results: The correlations of each item in the PFS with the total score were found to be positive and >0.30. The Cronbach’s alpha value was determined as 0.85. The construct validity of the scale was analysed with confirmatory factor analysis. The Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index was 0.97 and the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation was 0.07. These fit indices of the model confirmed the construct validity of the PFS. A positive and statistically significant correlation was found between BMI values of the students and the total score of the scale (r=0.157; p=0.003).
Conclusion: The findings obtained in this study have laid out that the Turkish Power of Food Scale (T-PFS), which was adapted to Turkish culture from PFS, is a valid and reliable measurement tool that can be applied in Turkey. Thus, T-PFS is thought to be likely to contribute to studies aiming to determine the status of hedonic hunger.
Key words: Hedonic hunger, power of food scale, Turkey university students

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Perspectives of Malaysian parents on eating out: A qualitative analysis
Suhaila Abdul Ghaffar, Ruzita Abd. Talib & Norimah A. Karim

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2019-0137

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The culture of eating out among Malaysians has substantially increased in recent years due to the urbanisation of the society. Frequent eating out has been linked with reduced quality of diet, reduced intake of micronutrients, and increased weight gain. This study aims to explore specific factors on the perceptions and behaviours related to eating out from the perspective of parents.
Methods: A qualitative study was carried out among 27 informants from various ethnicities and locations in Peninsular Malaysia. All sessions were audio-recorded, fully transcribed and analysed using thematic content analysis.
Results: The main overarching theme that surfaced from this study was the role of parents in shaping the practice of eating out. Time constraints due to parents’ work commitments, the availability of various food outlets, increase in family bonding time and food preferences were recurring themes revealed by informants as facilitating factors to eating out. Other emerging themes, such as hygiene of food premises and cost of food, posed as barriers to eating out.
Conclusion: These findings offered a better understanding on the eating out practices of a family from the parents’ perspective. Information as such could be incorporated in strategies to enhance the promotion of healthy eating and nutrition interventions that aim to inculcate healthy food choices while eating out.
Key words: Eating out, parents, qualitative study, Malaysia

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Effects of repeated deep-frying on fatty acid profiles of potato fries and frying oils: soybean oil, canola oil and their 1:1 blend
Michelle Ting Yun Yeo, Xinyan Bi & Christiani Jeyakumar Henry

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2020-0011

ABSTRACT

Introduction: This study looked at the fatty acid composition changes in potato fries fried in three different types of oils, namely soybean oil (SO), canola oil (CO), and a 1:1 blend of soybean oil and canola oil (SCO), throughout an intermittent frying process of 80 batches in five consecutive days. The study also examined the fatty acid composition changes in SO, CO and SCO during the frying process.
Methods: Fat from potato fries (extracted by Soxtec system) and oil samples from the corresponding frying oil were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) to examine the fatty acid profile changes during the deep-frying process.
Results: Linoleic acid (LA) and a-linolenic acid (ALA) in all three oils decreased, while oleic acid (C18:1), stearic acid (C18:0), palmitic acid (C16:0) and octanoic acid (C8:0) increased. Formation of C18:1 trans fatty acid was observed as the frying time increased. The fatty acid composition of the potato fries was consistent with the fatty acid composition of the corresponding frying oils.
Conclusion: Our results showed that blending soybean oil and canola oil did not significantly improve the frying stability of the resulting oil in terms of fatty acid profile. Due to the formation of trans fatty acids and the decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids, our study also recommends not to use the same frying oil repeatedly and not to consume food products cooked in reused oil.
Key words: Deep frying, reused oil, fatty acid, potatoes

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A cross-sectional study on nutritional status and dietary patterns of children with autism
Md. Nazrul Islam, Farzana Sultana Bari, Sampad Malakar Chayon, Farhana Yesmin, Sharmin Akter & Salma Bintey Kashem

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2019-0126

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Literature revealed that individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) experience significantly more feeding problems and obesity compared to their peers. This study was designed to investigate the nutritional status and dietary patterns of children with autism in different age groups in Dhaka city, Bangladesh.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 193 individuals with ASD. A questionnaire was used as a tool to collect information from the mother of the respondents and anthropometric assessments were conducted by measuring height and weight. The dietary patterns of the respondents were taken using a food frequency questionnaire.
Results: The age range of the participants were between 3-18 years. It was found that 11.9%, 19.7% and 23.3% of the participants were underweight, overweight and obese, respectively according to Body Mass Index (BMI)-for-age. About 70% of the respondents had medium Individual Dietary Diversity Score (IDDS). In addition, the association between IDDS and obesity was significantly correlated (p=0.00). Individuals with ASD exhibited similar food preferences across most age groups with little changes.
Conclusion: Our study figured out that the prevalence of overweight increased in accordance with age among children with ASD. They have a tendency to prefer likeness and routine in their diet, which expands the tendency to have an imbalanced diet. A dietary guideline including seven food groups should be followed to improve their nutritional status and dietary practices.
Key words: Our study figured out that the prevalence of overweight increased in accordance with age among children with ASD. They have a tendency to prefer likeness and routine in their diet, which expands the tendency to have an imbalanced diet. A dietary guideline including seven food groups should be followed to improve their nutritional status and dietary practices.

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Financial problems associated with food insecurity among public university students in Peninsular Malaysia
Nurulhudha Mohd Jamil, Norhasmah Sulaiman, Siti Nur’Asyura Adznam & Shamsul Azahari Zainal Badari

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2020-0032

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Food is a necessity for students. Yet, students’ food expenditure is anticipated to be restrained by their financial status. This cross-sectional study aims to determine the prevalence of food insecurity and its determinants among university students attending public universities in Peninsular Malaysia.
Methods: Multistage random sampling was used to select respondents from public universities in Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 427 undergraduate students completed a selfadministered questionnaire at four randomly selected universities (Universiti Utara Malaysia, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Universiti Malaysia Pahang and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia). The questionnaire consisted of information concerning demographic and socioeconomic backgrounds, food security status, eating behaviour, financial literacy, and financial problem among university students. Frequency, chi-square, and logistic regression were used to analyse the variables.
Results: Mean age of the respondents was 21.6 years, and 60.9% were found to be food insecure. Gender (χ2=5.415), origin (χ2=3.871), number of siblings (χ2=4.521), financial problem (χ2=42.364), and regular breakfast intake (χ2=5.654) were associated with food security status (p<0.05). Male respondents had 1.5 times (AOR=1.547, 95% CI: 1.006-2.380) the risk of having low food security status. Those with higher financial problems (AOR=3.575, 95% CI: 2.332-5.481) were 3.5 times more likely to be food insecure.
Conclusion: The prevalence of food insecurity among public university students in Peninsular Malaysia was significantly high. Thus, intervention studies should focus on students with financial problems. Moreover, establishing a better system for an on campus food pantry or food bank is needed to counter the high prevalence of food insecurity among university students.
Key words: Food insecurity, financial literacy, financial problem, meal skipping, university students

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Effects of occupational sunlight exposure and monsoon season on vitamin D concentration among outdoor and indoor workers in Malaysia
Norliyana Aris, Amal K. Mitra, Wan Mohd Izani Bin Wan Mohamed, Wan Abdul Manan Bin Wan Muda & Hamid Jan Bin Jan Mohamed

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2020-0038

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Despite abundant sunshine for cutaneous vitamin D synthesis, low levels of vitamin D have been documented among the Malaysian population. The aim of this study was to characterise the effects of occupational sunlight exposure and monsoon season on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration.
Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was performed among Malay outdoor (n=119) and indoor workers (n=119) in Kelantan. Two-point data were collected on the same participants, first during non-monsoon season and second during the northeast monsoon season. Data collection comprised of anthropometry measurements (body mass index and body fat), fasting blood test [serum 25(OH)D concentration], and questionnaire (physical activity level, sun exposure, sun protection use, and vitamin D intake). Vitamin D classification was based on the 2011 Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guidelines.
Results: This study found that serum 25(OH)D concentrations were significantly higher in outdoor compared to indoor workers irrespective of season (p<0.001) and sex (p<0.001). Monsoonal differences in serum 25(OH)D concentration was only observed in male outdoor workers (mean difference=10.39 nmol/l, p<0.001). Significant association between vitamin D status and occupation was also observed (p<0.001). However, no significant association was found between vitamin D status and monsoon season [χ2(1)=0.076, p=0.783].
Conclusion: Seasonal and occupational factors should be considered while evaluating individual serum 25(OH)D concentration and in comparing community studies, especially among workers.
Key words: 25-hydroxyvitamin D, occupation, monsoon, sunlight exposure

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Nutritional status and other predictors of immune response recovery among HIV-AIDS patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in Dr. Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia: a retrospective cohort study
Ika Puspita Asturiningtyas, Yanri Wijayanti Subronto & Nur Aini Kusmayanti

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2020-0018

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Nutritional status and immune response of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV-AIDS) patients are closely connected. There are limited studies assessing the influence of Body Mass Index (BMI) on immune response recovery among HIV patients in Indonesia. This study aimed to identify the BMI and other predictors of immune response recovery among HIV-AIDS patients following two years of Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy.
Methods: This research was a retrospective cohort study among HIV-AIDS patients who started ARV therapy from January 2014 to December 2016 at Dr. Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta. Data were collected from ARV registry and medical reports. Data were analysed using linear regression.
Results: A total of 255 patients were included in the study, with a median BMI of 20.07 kg/m2. Results showed that BMI was not significantly correlated with immune response recovery at the 6th, 12th, 18th, and 24th months of ARV therapy (p>0.05). But, the increase in cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cell count was higher in overweight and pre-obese patients than underweight patients, especially in the 18th and 24th months of therapy. Factors related to immune response recovery were the regularity of treatment at the 12th, 18th, and 24th months of ARV therapy, and the use of Tenofovir at 18th-month therapy (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Immune response recovery was higher in overweight and pre-obese patients. Using Tenofovir type ARV and doing treatment regularly can increase CD4 cell counts. Underweight patients need to enhance their nutritional status to improve their immune response during ARV therapy.
Key words: Nutritional status, body mass index, human immunodeficiency virus, immune response, CD4

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Fish oil capsule supplementation in children with obesity reduced c-reactive protein and improved blood pressure
I Gusti Lanang Sidiartha, Putu Diah Vedaswari & I Wayan Bikin Suryawan

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2019-0132

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Excessive accumulation of body fat in obesity increases morbidities such as hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. This study investigated the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on the level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and blood pressure in children with obesity.
Methods: Fifty obese children, aged 6-10 years, were randomly assigned to the supplementation group (n=25) who received EPA and DHA supplementation or to the placebo group (n=25) for eight weeks. The trial was done in a single centre in Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. Randomisation and allocation to the trial group were done by a computer system. The primary analysis was comparing the blood pressure and hs-CRP level between groups. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) tests were done to compare the differences between groups, with a p-value <0.05 considered as significant.
Results: A total of 44 children completed the study, 24 (54.5%) were males and 20 (45.5%) were females. Initially, the systolic/diastolic blood pressure and hs-CRP level in the supplementation and placebo groups were 109.5/72.7 mmHg and 3.5 mg/L, 107.9/68.4 mmHg and 2.8 mg/L, respectively. At the end, they were 106.3/67.7 mmHg and 1.7 mg/L, and 108.1/71.8 mmHg and 2.8 mg/L, respectively. Systolic-, diastolic blood pressure and hs-CRP level were decreased by -2.6 mmHg (95% CI: -6.9 to 1.6; p=0.220), -7.5 mmHg (95% CI: -12.4 to -2.6; p=0.004), and -1.15 mg/L (95% CI: -2.1 to -0.2; p=0.022), respectively.
Conclusion: EPA and DHA supplementation in obese children showed significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure and hs-CRP level.
Key words: Fatty acid, inflammation, cytokine

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Sleep quality and body weight status of Malaysian university students
Nurul Fareeza Suhaimi, Zuriati Ibrahim, Siti Nur ‘Asyura Adznam & Sabariah Md Noor

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2020-0048

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Inadequate sleep duration is a modifiable behaviour linked with body weight, yet limited is known on the role of sleep quality with body weight status among university students. The study aimed to determine sleep quality and its association with body weight status among university students.
Methods: A crosssectional study was conducted among 240 university students (24.6% males, 75.4% females) with a mean age of 21.22±1.24 years. Subjects were recruited from four faculties of University Putra Malaysia (UPM). Information on socio-demographic, sleep quality and anthropometric measurements were collected. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess sleep quality, whereby a summation score from seven components yielded a global score on sleep quality, with higher scores indicating poor sleep quality.
Results: Majority of subjects were Malay (79.2%) with a mean body mass index of 22.6kg/m2. A majority (61.3%) had normal body weight, with the prevalences of underweight (UW), overweight (OW), and obesity (OB) at 12.9%, 19.6% and 6.3%, respectively. The mean global PSQI score was 5.76±2.64, with half of the respondents (50.4%) experiencing poor sleep quality. OW-OB experienced poorer sleep quality (6.53±2.79, p=0.004) and longer sleep latency (1.34±0.10, p=0.008) relative to UW-NW. OB subjects had substantially more frequent sleep disturbances compared to non-OB subjects (1.53±0.64, p=0.012).
Conclusion: Findings suggest that OW-OB students at university are at a greater risk of having reduced sleep quality with longer sleep latency and frequent sleep disturbances. There is a need for a wellness initiative to reduce the incidence of obesity while fostering healthier sleeping habits among university students.
Key words: Sleep quality, university student, body weight status

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A qualitative study of motivators and barriers to weight reduction practices among overweight and obese suburban Malay adults
Wirdah Mohamed, Syaznie Enre, Poh Bee Koon & Ruzita Abd Talib

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2019-0139

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Designing an effective and comprehensive weight reduction intervention requires an understanding of the motivating factors and barriers to losing weight. This study explored the motivating factors and barriers to weight reduction through the experiences, emotions and ideas shared among suburban overweight and obese Malay adults.
Methods: In this qualitative study, 23 overweight or obese Malay adults aged 30-59 years old were divided into three focus group discussion (FGD). The Socio-Ecological Model (SEM), consisting of four levels (intrapersonal, interpersonal, community, and policy) was utilised in this study.
Results: The motivating factors were: (1) Intrapersonal level: self-awareness, health concern, self-confidence, and desire to have good physical appearance, (2) Interpersonal level: social support from family and friends, (3) Community level: availability and accessibility of physical activity facilities and health information, and (4) Policy level: healthy lifestyle programme. The barriers were: (1) Intrapersonal level: lack of knowledge about diet, physical limitations, lack of self-control, and emotion/mood, (2) Interpersonal level: spouse and children, career or housework commitment, (3) Community level: lack of neighbourhood safety, and availability and accessibility of outside foods, and (4) Policy level: availability and accessibility of outside foods.
Conclusion: Eight factors were identified as motivating factors and barriers for weight reduction practices. Support from family and friends should be considered when developing an effective and comprehensive weight loss programme as it was both a motivating factor as well as a barrier.
Key words: Motivator, barrier, weight reduction, obesity, qualitative study

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Smartphone-based application vs paper-based record: female adolescents acceptance on fluid record tool
Hiya Alfi Rahmah, Izka Sofiyya Wahyurin, Izzati Nur Khoiriani & Pramesthi Widya Hapsari

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2019-0122

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Water is essential for normal functioning of the human body. Total fluid intake assessment using fluid record method is considered to be a burden for respondents, and the development of technology is expected to contribute favourably to this issue. My Fluid Diary is a smartphone-based application developed by the researcher as a fluid intake recording tool. This study aimed to evaluate the acceptance of manual, paper-based fluid intake recording compared to using My Fluid Diary as a trial among Indonesian vocational female students.
Methods: A qualitative study was conducted to explore students’ acceptance of fluid intake recording using the smartphone-based application. An exploratory case study approach involving 38 female students as key informants was used via focus group discussion and in-depth interview as a method of triangulation.
Results: Based on the data, female adolescents admitted that the application was more acceptable for fluid intake than recording manually using a book, in consideration of three aspects - the benefits, the easiness, and the application display or features. Based on its benefits, My Fluid Diary was mentioned as easy to learn and use. However, in order to improve the application, there is still a need for research development.
Conclusion: My Fluid Diary was an application with respectable acceptance for fluid record compared to the manual, paper-based method among female adolescents.
Key words: Medical informatics application, qualitative research, adolescent

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SHORT COMMUNICATION

Effect of an educational intervention on nutrition literacy in teachers: a short communication
Mahnaz Hemati, Mehdi Akbartabar Toori, Mohsen Shams & Afsaneh Behroozpour

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2020-0014

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Teachers, by creating a culture of health within their classrooms, are agents of change and have an important role during students’ formative years. This study aimed to investigate the effect of an educational intervention on the nutrition literacy of primary school teachers in Yasuj.
Methods: In this quasiexperimental study, 110 primary school teachers in Yasuj, who were randomly selected from two areas of the city (intervention and comparison groups), were included in the study. Nutrition literacy was measured by using a validated tool for the Iranian society. After analysing the data, the educational content and structure were developed to improve nutrition literacy. The intervention consisted of two training sessions, provision of educational pamphlets and sending of two SMS messages. Data were analysed before and three months after the intervention by using SPSS16 software.
Results: Before the intervention, the mean ± standard deviation of nutrition literacy in the comparison and intervention groups were 27.04±3.15 and 27.25±3.27, respectively. According to repeated measures ANOVA, nutrition literacy score improved significantly three months after the intervention (p time = 0.001). Besides, there was a significant difference between the two groups (p group = 0.03). The interaction between time and group was also significant (p time × group = 0.001).
Conclusion: The educational intervention led to an improvement in the nutrition literacy of primary school teachers in Yasuj.
Key words: Nutrition literacy, nutrition education, teachers

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REVIEW

A review of national plans of action for nutrition in Southeast Asian countries
Tee E Siong, Rodolfo F Florentino, Hardinsyah, Ismail Mohd Noor, Lwin Mar Hlaing, Saipin Chotivichien & Le Thi Hop

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-review-26-3

ABSTRACT

This review describes national plans of action for nutrition (NPANs) in six Southeast Asia countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam) in order to provide an understanding of the approach and framework undertaken by these countries in the formulation and implementation of NPANs, as well as the similarities and differences in various NPAN components. The six countries recognised the persistent undernutrition and escalating rates of obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases as the key drivers for nutrition action plan implementation. The prioritisation of nutrition interventions outlined in these NPANs are based on respective country context and needs. Although differing in strategies and targets set, these countries show similarities in several components including objectives, stakeholder involvement, nutritional issues to be addressed, implementation, monitoring and evaluation mechanism, programme/ activities identified and challenges in implementing NPANs. Countries have recognised that effective implementation, monitoring and evaluation are essential to successfully address both extremes of the challenging nutrition situation. Several important similarities in the NPANs studied suggest that closer collaboration among countries and stakeholders on NPANs would be beneficial. Opportunities should be created for periodic exchanges to enable sharing of experiences in the development and implementation of NPANs among the countries. Recommendations and conclusions drawn from this review could serve as useful reference for nutrition policy and planning in the future.

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