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Stunting and zinc deficiency among 3-5 years old Kankana-ey children in Kibungan, Benguet, Philippines
Jessielyn S. Pantalone, Normahitta P. Gordoncillo, Leila S. Africa, Corazon VC. Barba, Josefina T. Dizon, Jaidee P. Agne & Kristine V. Montecillo

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2021-0114

ABSTRACT

Introduction: There is a dearth of public health and nutrition information available pertaining to the indigenous groups in the Philippines. Hence, this study described the prevalences of stunting and zinc deficiency, as well as factors associated with zinc status of 3-5 years old children among the Kankana-ey people, an indigenous group living in Kibungan, Benguet, Philippines.
Methods: A cross-sectional design was used in the conduct of the study where 63 study participants were randomly selected from a chronological list of names of eligible Kankana-ey children by drawing lots. The mothers/primary caregivers of these children were interviewed to collect their socio-economic and demographic data, and dietary intake was assessed through three non-consecutive days 24-hour food recall. Height and weight of the children were also measured to determine their nutritional status. Lastly, blood samples were collected to determine the zinc status of the children based on serum zinc concentration, analysed through atomic absorption spectrophotometer.
Results: Results showed that 54.0% and 50.8% of the Kankana-ey children had stunting and zinc deficiency, respectively. There was significant positive association between being exclusively breastfed and current zinc status (p=0.001). On the other hand, a statistically significant negative correlation was observed between zinc intake and zinc serum concentration (r=-0.291, p=0.021).
Conclusion: Undernutrition among Kankana-ey children is a major public health concern in Kibungan, Benguet. Preventive actions must be taken to alleviate the severity of both stunting and zinc deficiency, and to mitigate possible consequences by strengthening the current nutrition and health programmes for indigenous groups, especially among young children.
Key words: indigenous peoples, nutritional deficiency, nutritional status, zinc

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Effects of soaking duration and incubation conditions on GABA biosynthesis in MangBuk brown rice of Vietnam
Ho Thi Ngoc Tram, Phan Phuoc Hien & Thi Mong Diep Nguyen

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2021-0115

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Many people are currently interested in improving and maintaining their health status by changing their dietary habits, like eating more natural foods; thus sprout products are becoming increasingly popular. In this context, sprouted brown rice grains are an excellent example of functional food, because besides their nutritive value, they also lower the risk of various diseases and/or exert health- promoting effects. In this paper, we focused on the bioactive compound γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in germinated brown rice. GABA is known as an important amino acid that can help reduce hypertension and inhibit cancer cells development.
Methods: We investigated the hydration characteristics of brown rice by drying them in a moisture analyser at 130°C until reaching a constant weight. The effects of soaking (duration and pH of soaking solution), as well as incubation conditions (temperature and time) on GABA biosynthesis in MangBuk brown rice of Vietnam were measured. Quantification of GABA was measured using a spectrophotometer.
Results: GABA content in MangBuk type 1 brown rice was higher than in type 2. GABA content reached its highest value at 691.88 μg/g for type 1 rice and 596.48 μg/g for type 2 rice when MangBuk brown rice was soaked in a pH 7 water at 30°C for 12 hours, and then incubated at 35°C for 30 hours in aerobic condition.
Conclusion: Germination conditions modified the content of biologically active compounds in MangBuk soft and hard rice varieties. GABA was synthesised during germination based on three factors, namely time of incubation, temperature of incubation, and pH of solution.
Key words: gamma-amino butyric acid, germinated grains, hydrolytic enzymes, MangBuk brown rice, soaking duration

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Cathelicidin LL-37 level in presence and absence of vitamin D in cultured macrophages isolated from elderly women
Joyeta Ghosh, Aditi Nag Chaudhuri, Indranil Saha & Debnath Chaudhuri

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2021-0013

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency and frequent infections are the two common worldwide phenomenon among elderly. Recent studies have demonstrated that vitamin D regulates the expression of specific endogenous antimicrobial peptides like cathelicidin LL-37 of macrophages and neutrophils, which is active against a broad spectrum of infectious agents. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the level of cathelicidin LL-37 in macrophages of elderly women (classified according to serum 25(OH)D level) after exposure to Vibrio cholera infection and to find out the effect of 1,25(OH)2D added in vitro.
Methods: This study was conducted among 40 randomly selected rural elderly women aged between 60 to 70 years of age. Their vitamin D status was assessed by the estimation of serum 25(OH)D and classified into three groups viz. sufficient (14 members), insufficient (13 members), and deficient (13 members). Later, their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated and cultured from fresh blood. 1,25(OH)2D supplementation was given selectively at a dose of 10 ×10-8 M for 72 hours in the culture media; then exposed to infection and screened according to the objectives of this study.
Results: Macrophages in all groups, except vitamin D deficient group, responded significantly in terms of LL-37 release during exposure to Vibrio cholera infection. Considering in vitro 1,25(OH)2D, supplementation responded significantly (p<0.05) in all three groups.
Conclusion: Vitamin D can be used as a prophylaxis to enhance cathelicidin LL-37 release for all three groups as in the present study.
Key words: cathelicidin LL-37 activity, elderly women, macrophages, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, vitamin D

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Models and theories to support health promotion programmes for overweight and obese adults: A scoping review
Tatiana Suhaimi, Sharifah Wajihah Wafa Syed Saadun Tarek Wafa, Hanif Farhan Mohd Rasdi & Ruzita Abd Talib

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2021-0126

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has been alarming. One approach to address this issue is to implement health promotion programmes. Despite the many health promotion and health intervention programmes held, there is a lack of evidence showing the application of theories and models. This scoping review aimed to explore existing literature and synthesise findings based on models and theories used to support health promotion programmes for overweight and obese adults.
Methods: This review was guided by the Arksey and O’Malley framework. Online databases, such as Ovid, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science, were used to search for relevant articles using suitable keywords, from January 2015 until December 2021. Articles were written in English and Malay, and the study subjects were adults aged 18-59 years old. Two reviewers independently screened the articles, and the extracted information were tabulated after analysis.
Results: A total of 13 different theories and models were found in the 27 articles selected. Many studies reported using the Transtheoretical Model, Social Cognitive Theory, and Health Belief Model in health promotion programmes for overweight and obese adults. Most constructs and components focused on changing health-related behaviours starting with the individual, such as self-efficacy and readiness to change. Majority of the articles showed an improvement in health-related behaviours and had great potential for future studies.
Conclusion: When conducting health promotion programmes for overweight and obese adults, researchers should consider models and theories with constructs and components to ensure consistent improvement and potentially significant impacts on health-related outcomes.
Key words: adult, health promotion, model, obesity, theory

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