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Development of a tool to measure patients’ satisfaction of hospital foodservice in a government hospital
Mariem Boughoula, Rosita Jamaluddin, Nurul Aqmaliza Abd Manan, Hazizi Abu Saad & Muhammad Sharim Ab Karim

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2019-0047

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Dissatisfaction towards the quality of foodservice can affect several important aspects such as nutritional intake and financial burden. The effect of dissatisfaction towards nutritional aspect can be observed via a decline in dietary intake. Therefore, reliable and valid questionnaires are important to measure patients’ satisfaction with hospital foodservice. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the construct validity and reliability of a developed questionnaire in a local setting.
Methods: A questionnaire adapted from previous studies and consisting of 27 statements from four dimensions, was administered to a total of 277 hospitalised patients in a government hospital. Factor analysis and reliability analysis were conducted using SPSS version 25.
Results: Principal component of factor analysis revealed that the final questionnaire contained four main foodservice dimensions, namely food properties, staff and meal service reliability, customisation, and physical and social aspects. The reliability analysis revealed that the Cronbach’s alpha value ranged from 0.55 to 0.84 for these foodservice dimensions. The analysis showed that the alpha value differed from one dimension to another such as food properties (α=0.84), staff and meal service reliability (α=0.67), customisation (α=0.69) and physical and social aspects (α=0.55).
Conclusion: Twenty-seven questionnaire items were retained because their factor loadings were greater than 0.35. Therefore, the questionnaire on patients’ satisfaction towards hospital foodservice was considered reliable and valid. The classification of the four dimensions provided detailed information of the satisfaction level, relationship and influence on the foodservice dimensions, which contributed to satisfaction towards hospital foodservice.
Key words: Patients’ satisfaction, hospital food, hospital foodservice, reliability, validity, factor analysis

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Body mass index of adults, pre-elderly and elderly in Indonesia (Indonesian Family Life Survey 2014)
Ratu Ayu Dewi Sartika & Eka Rosiyati

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2019-0045

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Nutritional status is an indicator of health status that can be determined using the Body Mass Index (BMI) (kg/m2). This study aimed to determine factors affecting the nutritional status of adults, pre-elderly, and elderly.
Methods: This cross-sectional study used secondary data from 13,655 respondents aged 36– 66 years that were a part of the 2014 Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS). Food consumption patterns, physical activity, and socio-demographic data were used to assess nutritional status (BMI).
Results: Consumption patterns of carbohydrates, protein, fat, vegetables, and fruits were significantly associated with mean BMI as an increase in consumption score led to an increase in mean BMI. Conversely, greater physical activity resulted in a decrease in mean BMI. Mean BMI among females was higher than that of males, irrespective of factors such as marital status, unemployment, presence of health insurance, or smoking. Sumatranese people had the highest mean BMI among the population, along with senior high school graduates and high-income earners. Both higher income and education levels led to higher mean BMI.
Conclusion: Many factors were shown to affect nutritional status. The results imply that solving nutritional problems in order to improve quality of life will involve many factors, including socioeconomic variables, which are important for designing and evaluating health programmes.
Key words: Nutritional status, adults, pre-elderly, elderly, factors

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Adiponectin, anthropometric measurements and insulin resistance in adolescence with obesity
Nur Aisiyah Widjaja, Rendi Aji Prihaningtyas, Meta Herdiana Hanindita, Roedi Irawan, IDG Ugrasena & Retno Handajani

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2019-0100

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Obesity in adolescents can cause metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance increases the risk of metabolic syndrome, which then increases the risk of premature death. Studies about anthropometric measurements and adiponectin levels as early markers of insulin resistance in obese adolescents are still limited.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 59 obese adolescents aged 13–16 years. Obesity was established on the basis of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) curve (2000). Insulin and blood glucose level measurements were carried out using an enzymatic kit. Adiponectin levels were assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The relationships between variables were evaluated by correlation analysis using SPSS.
Results: Statistical tests showed a positive correlation between waist circumference (r=0.421; p=0.001) and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) (r=0.396; p=0.002). Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) had a weak positive correlation with insulin (r=0.343; p=0.008 and r=0.311; p=0.017) and HOMA-IR (r=0.306; p=0.018). There was a weak negative correlation between adiponectin and insulin in obese adolescents (r=-0.278; p=0.033).
Conclusion: Anthropometric measurements (waist circumference, WHR and WHtR) and adiponectin can be used for early detection of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia in obese adolescents.
Key words: Adiponectin, insulin, HOMA-IR, adolescents, obesity

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Parental perception of child’s body weight status and its association with socio-demographic factors among Malay children in primary schools in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia
Nurzaime Zulaily, Aryati Ahmad, Mohd Razif Shahril & Amran Ahmed

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2019-0089

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Obesity rate among school children has increased globally. Parental perception plays a significant role in the management of obesity among children. Previous studies indicated that parents who accurately perceived their child’s body weight status (BWS) tended to encourage healthy behaviours as compared to parents who overlooked the problem. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the association between socio-demographic factors with parental perceptions of their child’s BWS among school children in Terengganu, Malaysia.
Methods: Using a cross-sectional study design, 389 school children aged 9 to 11 years old were recruited. Height and weight were measured using calibrated tools and inputted into the World Health Organization AnthroPlus software for body mass index z-score calculation. Parental perceptions of their child’s BWS were explored using a selfadministered questionnaire together with their socio-demographic background.
Results: Of 389 subjects, 53.2% of school children were from rural and 46.8% were from urban schools. Overall, mean BMI-for-age z-score between school locations showed no significant difference, with higher means reported in urban (-0.2±1.6SD) than in rural (-0.4±1.6SD). Significant association was found between parents’ perceptions and actual BWS (p<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that parents of overweight children and parents in rural schools were more likely to misperceive their child’s BWS.
Conclusion: This finding suggests that parents from rural areas and having overweight children were more likely to have misperceptions of their child’s BWS. Therefore, knowledge-based intervention programmes among parents specifically in the rural areas are needed to increase the level of awareness to assist in obesity prevention.
Key words: Parental perception, body weight, school children, Terengganu

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School-based nutrition education to improve children and their mothers’ knowledge on food and nutrition in rural areas of the Philippines
Idelia G. Glorioso*, Milflor S. Gonzales & Andrea Marie P. Malit

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2020-0004

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Nutrition education among school children and their mothers is an opportunity to promote lifelong healthy eating behaviours to improve their nutrition and well-being. The present study determined the effectiveness of nutrition education modules in improving children and their mothers’ knowledge on food and nutrition. Likewise, changes in attitude and behaviour among children were also determined.
Methods: Five nutrition education modules were developed with key messages on healthy plate, fruits and vegetables, protein sources, nutrientdense sources of energy, and water and healthy beverages. Grades 2 and 3 students received 60 hours of nutrition education with a duration of 25 minutes per session. Students were divided into two groups: (1) nutrition education alone (n=83) and (2) nutrition education with feeding (n=83). Simultaneously, a total of nine onehour nutrition education sessions were conducted among mothers, following the same five modules taught to the students. Mothers were also grouped according to their child’s group.
Results: Student participants in both groups exhibited improvements in mean scores on knowledge, attitude, and behaviour (KAB) from baseline to end line. Based on results of mothers’ classes, mean post-test scores of participants were significantly higher than mean pre-test scores in both groups. Group 1 had a higher increase in score from 67.2±32.8 at pre-test to 71.8±33.7 in post-test.
Conclusion: The developed nutrition education modules were effective in teaching children proper nutrition. Incorporation of these modules into the K to 12 curriculum will emphasise importance of proper nutrition in early childhood. Moreover, mothers’ classes can be an effective way to bridge the gap between school and community nutrition interventions.
Key words: School-based nutrition education, nutrition knowledge scores, mothers’ nutrition classes

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Food consumption behaviours and associated personal and socio-economic factors in elderly adults, Northeastern Thailand
Pruksa Supannee

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2019-0095

ABSTRACT

Introduction: This research was a cross-sectional study. The objective was to study food consumption behaviours and associated factors in elderly adults in the Northeastern Region.
Methods: The study included 1,336 older adults (age >60 years) from five provinces, i.e. Udornthani, Nakornratchasima, Mahasarakam, Nakhonpanom and Amnatcharoen. Random multi-stage sampling was used, and data were collected through interview. The statistics used for content analysis was percentage, mean, standard deviation (SD) and multiple logistic regression analysis.
Results: The food consumption behaviours of the study population was fair or poor (60.0%), followed by good (40.0%). Multiple logistic regression revealed that there were some personal factors that were significantly associated with food consumption behaviours. These factors included sex, education level, living condition, health condition, knowledge, attitude and preference of food. Regarding the effect of socioeconomic factors towards food consumption behaviours, it was found that those effects included food sources and food factors.
Conclusion: Local health authorities should pay attention to the factors mentioned above in order to designate policies or methods to oversee future food consumption behaviours in the elderly.
Key words: Food consumption behaviours, factors, elderly, Thailand

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