MJN 2022 Issues

Malaysian Journal of Nutrition (Mal J Nutr)

Volume 28 No.1, 2022



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Table of Content


Farmers’ expenditures associated with children’s nutritional status in areas affected by Indonesia’s Sinabung eruption
Sadar Ginting, Nithra Kitreerawutiwong & Sunsanee Mekrungrongwong

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2021-0077

ABSTRACT

Introduction: During the time of volcano eruptions, farmers have to harvest their crops before the stipulated harvest time, which leads to quality and quantity loss. Besides, farmers also have to continue their farming activities, including purchasing farming necessities. These unaddressed issues of the agricultural restoration could be one of the key factors to malnutrition. Therefore, this study assessed the associations between farmers’ expenditures and the nutritional status of children in areas affected by Indonesia’s Sinabung eruption.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 444 (158 farmers, 228 farmers cum farm labourers, and 58 farm labourers) households headed by farmers. The questionnaire used for data collection was the Indonesian Family Life Survey questions (IFLS).
Results: Non-food expenditures had a huge impact on household livelihoods, which was significantly associated with children’s nutritional status. Among the three groups of farmers, children of farmers and farmers cum farm labourers were prone to malnutrition. This was because these two groups had to limit food expenditures over their farming necessities and cigarettes expenditure, which took more than half of their income. However, the prevalence of malnutrition was highest in children of farmers. Children of farm labourers had better nutritional status compared to children of the other two groups.
Conclusion: Children of farmers and farmers cum farm labourers were prone to malnutrition due to limited expenditure on food. This study suggests that policymakers in Indonesia should provide food and nutrition security to children who were impacted by the Sinabung eruption.
Key words: farmers’ expenditures, child nutrition, volcano eruption

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Association of household food security and dietary diversity of mother-child pairs in the Philippines
Mildred O. Guirindola, Ma. Lynell V. Maniego* & Cristina G. Malabad

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2021-0046

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The majority of Filipino households experience food insecurity. Mothers and children are among the population groups suffering from poor diet quality. This study aimed to determine the extent of the association of household food security (HFS) to mothers’ and children’s dietary diversity score (DDS), and to identify the significant factors associated with meeting the DDS of these vulnerable groups.
Methods: The study was a cross-sectional, population-based study utilising secondary data from the 2015 Updating Survey. From a total of 6,692 mother-child pairs, the association between HFS and meeting the DDS of mothers and children, as well as the potential predictors for meeting the DDS were tested using descriptive and logistic regression analyses.
Results: The findings showed that HFS was significantly associated with meeting the DDS of mothers and children aged 6-36 months (p<0.001). The proportion of meeting the DDS among mothers and children was significantly higher in food-secure than in food-insecure households (20.7% vs. 14.4%). Furthermore, meeting the DDS decreased with increasing levels of food insecurity. Household food security status, education background, employment, child’s age, and wealth status were significantly associated with meeting the DDS.
Conclusion: This study showed the extent of how food security was associated with meeting the DDS of mothers, children, and mother-child pairs, and the factors associated with meeting the DDS. Results can be used to strengthen the formulation of appropriate, evidence-based policies to address household food insecurity and low DDS among mothers and young children.
Key words: household food security, dietary diversity, mother-child pairs, Philippines, NNS

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Exploring the norms of eating-out practice among adults in Malaysia
Lydiatul Shima Ashari, Ainaa Almardhiyah Abd Rashid, Mohd Razif Shahril, Yeong Yeh Lee, Yee Cheng Kueh, Bibi Nabihah Abdul Hakim, Nor Hamizah Shafiee, Raja Affendi Raja Ali & Hamid Jan Jan Mohamed

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2021-0008

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Eating-out is common in almost all countries, including Malaysia, but this frequent practice may affect human health. In Malaysia, data on eating-out is limited. This study aimed to assess the proportion of eating-out, to assess the association between socio-demographic factors and eating patterns, and to compare energy and nutrient intakes between people eating-out and eating-in.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 adults aged 30 to 70 years old. Three-day food diaries were used to collect data on dietary intake. Eating-out was defined as eating foods prepared outside the home. Respondents who ate outside for at least one meal per day, for two or three days per week were considered as those who frequently practised eating-out.
Results: A total of 84% of respondents who ate out had significantly higher sodium intake than those who ate at home (2934 mg/day vs. 2165 mg/day, p=0.025). Foods and drinks that were most commonly consumed outside were nasi lemak, roti canai, rice, ayam masak kicap, vegetable soup, tomyam, rice vermicelli soup (mee-hoon soup), hot teh-o, iced tea, and orange juice. Occupation (p=0.004) and location type (p=0.001) were associated with eatingout. Government and semi-government workers (61%) and urban population (57%) had higher percentage of eating-out compared to eating at home (19% and 12%, respectively).
Conclusion: More than two-thirds of our respondents ate out and this habit was related to poor diet quality with excessive intake of sodium. Interventions are needed to improve the diet quality of the overall eating-out behaviour among targeted population.
Key words: eating pattern, eating-out, factors, nutrients, Malaysia

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Sociodemographic factors associated with consumption of high-sodium foods: Evidence from Malaysia
Yong Kang Cheah, Sharifah Nazeera Syed Anera, Chee Cheong Kee, Kuang Hock Lim & Mohd Azahadi Omar

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2021-0088

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The objective of the present study was to investigate the influences of sociodemographic factors on consumption of high-sodium foods among adults in Malaysia.
Methods: Data were extracted from the Malaysian Community Salt Survey (MyCoSS) (n=1046). A seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) was utilised to assess factors associated with the number of servings of high-sodium foods (nasi lemak, roti canai, fried rice, fried noodles, and fried vermicelli) consumed per week. The independent variables were sociodemographic factors.
Results: Younger individuals consumed more high-sodium foods than their older counterparts. Adults with secondary level education consumed more high-sodium foods compared with those with tertiary level education. Consumption of high-sodium foods was higher among males and Malays compared to females and non-Malays.
Conclusion: Consumption of high-sodium foods was common in the population. Sociodemographic factors, such as age, education level, gender, and ethnicity, play an important role in influencing the decisions of people to consume high-sodium foods.
Key words: age, food, gender, Malaysia, population study, salt, sodium

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Anaemia and its associated factors among pregnant women in Malaysia
Halimatus Sakdiah Minhat & Puganeswary Thangarajah

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2021-0047

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Despite remarkable improvement in maternal health, anaemia during pregnancy remains a significant public health threat to Malaysian women. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, severity, and associated factors of anaemia in pregnancy among pregnant mothers in Seremban, Negeri Sembilan.
Methods: A total of 482 pregnant mothers were recruited using cluster sampling. Data were collected using a validated and pre-tested self-administered questionnaire consisting of four sections, namely socio-demographic and socioeconomic details, obstetric history, nutritional factors, and iron supplementation status. In this study, anaemia in pregnancy was defined as haemoglobin (Hb) <11.0 g/dL, which was based on blood test taken during the first trimester. The data were analysed using IBM SPSS version 23.0. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the predictive model for anaemia during pregnancy among the respondents.
Results: The prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy among the respondents was 22.0%, with 95.3% respondents mildly anaemic. Respondents with an intake of iron supplementation of once daily (AOR=0.191, 95% CI: 0.074- 0.914), more than once daily (AOR=0.149, 95%CI: 0.091-0.248), and low intake of seafood (AOR=0.320, 95% CI: 0.187-0.526) were less likely to develop anaemia during pregnancy.
Conclusion: The findings revealed moderate level of anaemia in pregnancy, which was dominated by those in the mild category, with increased risk predicted among young mothers. Iron supplementation (once daily or more) and low intake of seafood protected mothers from developing anaemia during pregnancy.
Key words: anaemia, pregnancy, maternal health

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Evaluation of in vitro lipid-lowering properties of ‘Saba’ banana [Musa acuminata x balbisiana (BBB group) ‘Saba’] peel pectin from different extraction methods
Estribillo Abbie Glenn M, Gaban Prince Joseph V, Rivadeneira Joel P, Villanueva Jeric C, Torio Mary Ann O & Castillo-Israel Katherine Ann T

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2020-0121

ABSTRACT

Introduction: This study was conducted to investigate the in-vitro lipid-lowering properties of ‘Saba’ banana peel pectin (SBP) extracted using three methods for its possible use as a dietary fibre ingredient.
Methods: Pectin from ‘Saba’ banana peels were extracted using acid extraction (citric acid), enzymatic extraction (cellulase), and microwave-assisted extraction. In-vitro lipid-lowering assays were performed using spectrophotometry for pancreatic lipase inhibition and cholesterol binding, while liquid chromatography was used for bile acid-binding capacity.
Results: Results revealed that all SBPs were not able to inhibit pancreatic lipase activity. However, all SBPs can notably bind to cholesterol and bile acids, taurocholate, and glycocholate. Acid-extracted pectin had the highest binding capacity to cholesterol (51.36%–55.07%) and glycocholate (27.37%), whereas all SBPs were similarly bound to taurocholate.
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that acidextracted SBPs can significantly bind to cholesterol and bile acids, glycocholate and taurocholate, thereby indicating a possible reduction in lipid metabolism.
Key words: saba, pectin, pancreatic lipase inhibition, cholesterol-binding capacity, bile acid binding capacity

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Implications of undernutrition in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia during induction therapy – experience from a developing country
Latha M Sneha, Lakshmanan SakthiKumar, Apurva Kadiyala, Julius Scott & Dhaarani Jayaraman

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2020-0131

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Undernutrition is an important prognostic factor in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and higher incidences of mortality are reported during induction remission in severely undernourished children. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and implications of malnutrition among ALL children during induction therapy.
Methods: All children ≤18 years diagnosed and treated for ALL at our institution, between June 2010 to July 2016 were included in this retrospective cohort study. Nutrition was assessed by body mass index-forage z-scores calculated using World Health Organization’s Anthro (<5 years) and Anthro-Plus Software (≥5 years). Children with a z-score of <-2 standard deviation (SD) were classified as undernourished. All events and outcomes were compared between undernourished and adequately nourished children.
Results: A total of 72 children were included in this study. Nineteen (26.4%) were undernourished at the time of diagnosis. Twenty-eight (38.8%) children had significant weight loss. Sixty-seven of them attained remissions by the end of induction chemotherapy. Five children who died had significant weight loss. Children with significant weight loss during induction phase had a higher risk of developing complications such as febrile neutropenia, pneumonia, mucositis, and drug interruptions. Those with a deteriorating nutritional status had a higher chance of poor treatment outcome (p=0.05, CI=95%).
Conclusion: It is important to assess and monitor the nutrition status of children and timely nutritional intervention is essential. A simple, cost effective nutritional intervention that will decrease morbidity and mortality associated with the disease must be devised.
Key words: acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, induction therapy, outcome, undernutrition

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Relationship between 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) taster status, dietary intake and dental caries among young adult subjects
Syathirah Hanim Azhar Hilmy, Ruhaya Hasan, Norkhafizah Saddki & Marina Abdul Manaf

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2021-0079

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Previous studies have established an association between 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) taster and dietary intake. However, those studies mostly emphasised on macronutrients. The present study examined the dietary intake, including macro- and micronutrients, and caries experience among university students according to their PROP taster status.
Methods: A total of 158 university students participated in this study. PROP taster status was determined using filter paper method. Dietary intake was collected using 24-hour diet recall method. Oral health examination was conducted to determine dental caries experience.
Results: The results showed that majority of subjects were supertasters. No significant differences (p>0.05) were found in the macronutrient intakes among supertasters, medium tasters, and non-tasters. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found in the intakes of micronutrients, namely pantothenic acid, vitamin D, magnesium, manganese, and fluoride. There were no significant differences among group tasters in the dental caries experience scores of decayed (D), missing (M), and filled (F) teeth.
Conclusion: In general, this study indicated that all group tasters had no difference in macronutrients intake and caries experience, but supertasters had significantly lower intakes of some micronutrients as compared to non-tasters and medium tasters. This suggested that PROP taster status could have some influence on micronutrient intakes.
Key words: caries, dietary intake, macronutrients, micronutrients, PROP, young adults

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Effectiveness of school-based obesity prevention programme among elementary school children in Jakarta
Felicia Kurniawan, Yayi Suryo Prabandari, Djauhar Ismail & Fatwasari Tetra Dewi

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2020-0101

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity are easier in children than in adults. This study was conducted to evaluate the Smart Eating and Healthy Activity (SEHAT) programme, an intervention programme involving parents, teachers, and students in Indonesia to prevent obesity at schools. The intervention was conducted in the form of seminars and leaflets distribution to parents, training of teachers, training of student health cadres, training of students by trained teachers, health promotion to school canteen vendors, and promoting healthy home food weekly.
Methods: This non-randomised controlled trial study was conducted from January to May 2016 in North Jakarta. The primary outcome was body mass index (BMI) changes measured with SECA® digital scale for weight and microtoise for height measurements. The secondary outcomes were changes in children’s knowledge, self-efficacy and behaviours, measured using self-made questionnaires, and physical activity using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C). A total of 278 fourth and fifth-grade elementary school students aged 9 to 11 years old were recruited and grouped into intervention group (121 students) and control group (157 students).
Results: The study reported a significant change between intervention and control groups on knowledge (1.28 vs 0.31), attitude (1.85 vs 0.06), physical activity (0.14 vs -0.32), eating fruits and vegetables (0.02 vs -0.78), and BMI (0.33 vs 0.71).
Conclusion: The five-month SEHAT intervention programme effectively promoted knowledge on healthy eating and physical activity for obesity prevention by increasing physical activity, eating fruits and vegetables, and maintaining students’ BMI.
Key words: body mass index, children, healthy eating, physical activity, schoolbased intervention

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Validation of questionnaire for assessing perceived benefits and barriers of vegetable consumption in Japanese adults
Yaeko Kawaguchi, Junichiro Somei, Chikana Kawaguchi, Akiko Suganuma & Naoki Sakane

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2021-0051

ABSTRACT

Introduction: This study aimed to develop and validate a diet consultation tool that assesses the perceived benefits and barriers of vegetable consumption attached to the stage of change in Japanese adults.
Methods: A web-based survey was conducted among university and vocational school students, medical staffs, and local residents in the Aichi, Osaka, and Kyoto prefectures of Japan between September 2017 and January 2018. Participants comprised of 379 adults aged 20–70 years (mean age: 30.5±12.6 years; men: 21.4%). The scale for decisional balance of vegetable consumption contained 15 benefit items and 15 barrier items. The internal consistency of the scale was examined using Cronbach’s alpha and construct validity was examined using an exploratory factor analysis with Promax rotation.
Results: The developed questionnaire had 12 items across two domains for benefits and 12 items across three domains for barriers that were structured with high internal consistencies (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.82, 0.79, 0.82, 0.76 and 0.76, respectively). The intraclass correlation coefficient in the test-retest reliability study was substantial (0.77). We found a very clear association between decreasing barrier score with increasing vegetable consumption and progress in the stage of change. The decisional balance score (benefits score minus barriers score) was positively correlated with the number of vegetable servings as an external parameter (Spearman’s correlation: 0.461; p<0.001).
Conclusion: The developed questionnaire was a valid, reliable, and useful tool for diet consultants to assess the perceived benefits and barriers of vegetable consumption in Japanese adults.
Key words: balance, benefits and barriers, diet consultation, questionnaire, vegetable

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Development of nutrition screening guideline content for use by healthcare staffs in older adults in health clinic setting: A scoping review
Siti Nur Amirah Sheikh Hishamuddin, Aliza Haslinda Hamirudin, Sakinah Harith, Mohd Aznan Md Aris, Karimah Hanim Abd Aziz, Iman Nabihah Noor Azam & Nurul Syaireen A Rashid

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2020-0117

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Malnutrition, specifically undernutrition, in community-dwelling older adults reduces their well-being and predisposes to diseases. Therefore, timely malnutrition identification through nutrition screening is needed to identify at risk and malnourished patients. This study aimed to develop the content of nutrition screening guideline to facilitate healthcare staffs in health clinics to administer a validated nutrition screening tool specifically for older adults.
Methods: A scoping review was conducted electronically using SCOPUS, PubMed, ProQuest Health & Medical Complete, and Cochrane databases. The systematic search was performed up to 31st December 2021. Search terms were created for identification of eligible and related articles. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were determined for the systematic search. The search was limited to English and Malay languages, and full text articles with no limitation of years. All data were extracted and analysed, guided by the PRISMA extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR).
Results: From 728 identified articles, 18 articles were included in the analysis. Identified information for the guideline content were: introduction, aims and objectives, definition of malnutrition, prevalence of malnutrition, implementation of nutrition screening, guidance on administering items in validated tools, and guidance on anthropometric measurements. Meanwhile, format and flow charts from established guidelines served as references for the guideline development process.
Conclusion: Appropriate content to develop a nutrition screening guideline has been identified based on this review. Development of a guideline based on this content can facilitate healthcare staffs to perform timely nutrition screening in older adults.
Key words: healthcare staffs, malnutrition, nutrition screening guideline, older adults, scoping review

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Knowledge, attitude, and behaviour towards nutrition radio programmes in mothers of children under five years with severe acute malnutrition in Northern Nigeria
Oyeduntan Adewunmi Enoch, Anorue Luke Ifeanyi, Idowu Olayinka Olajumoke, Balogun Bidemi Mutairu, Lasisi Bukola Fatima & Okunbo Victor

doi: https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2021-0022

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Although the mass media are increasingly becoming a platform for disseminating health messages to promote attitude and behavioural changes, little is known about how radio programmes influence safe child feeding practices among mothers of infants and children. Consequently, this study examined the knowledge, attitude and behaviour towards food and nutrition radio programmes in mothers of children under five years with severe acute malnutrition in Northern Nigeria.
Methods: This study employed a survey research design using data derived from a structured questionnaire undertaken with mothers (N=402) of children suffering from severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and who have been listening to radio programmes on tackling malnutrition within six months to the time of the fieldwork.
Results: Findings revealed that while mothers appeared to have a higher comprehension of child feeding programmes on the radio, their attitude and actual uptake of the messages were not encouraging. Furthermore, being young, having few children, having a primary education, and frequent listening to SAM-related messages on the radio were associated with mothers’ positive knowledge, attitude and actual uptake of the messages disseminated.
Conclusion: The findings provided a link between demographic characteristics of mothers and how they comprehend, believe and act on the messages they received from these radio programmes. It is therefore argued that the understanding of this link might inform the focus of future intervention aimed at promoting best child feeding practices in Northern Nigeria.
Key words: health education, intervention, malnutrition, mothers, radio programmes

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