This study was conducted to evaluate the implementation of the School Supplement Feeding Program (SSFP) among primary school in terms of financial management and budget disbursement, food preparation, selection of menus and nutrient content of food served. A total of 129 schools comprising 77 national type, 31 Chinese and 21 Tamil vernacular schools in four different regions (northern, eastern, central and southern) of Peninsular Malaysia were selected for this study. The results of this cross-sectional study showed a need to improve the budget disbursement to schools. Most of the schools followed the guidelines provided by the Ministry of Education for selection of eligible children. The quality of food prepared by contracted (local community members) and voluntary (teachers) operators. The use of 10 recommended menus provided for a 2-week cycle by most of the schools has shown increased acceptance and less monotonous feeling towards the food among the children. Nutrient content of food served increased relatively with an increase in budget from RM0.45 to RM0.80 per child. Parents surveyed indicated that the program should continue as this will keep children from low income families from being hungry during school hours. A continued process of monitoring and evaluation is necessary to improve its implementation.
Growth status was examined in relation to gender and age factors in urban primary school children (6-10 years old) from low income households in Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan. The sample consisted of 4212 boys (53%) and 3793 girls (47%). Data on weight and height data were obtained from two sources – investigator’s and teachers’ measurements of the school children. This study defined mildly and significantly underweight, stunted or wasted as z-score below minus one and below minus two of the NCHS/CDC reference median, respectively. Approximately 52% (n = 4149), 50% (n = 3893) and 30% (n = 2568) of the school children were underweight, stunted and wasted, respectively. However, the majority of these undernourished children were in the mild category. Prevalence of overweight (> 2 SD of NCHS/WHO reference median) was found in 5.8% of the sample. For both, prevalence of undernutrition and overnutrition, more boys than girls were found to be underweight stunted wasted and overweight. Compared to girls, boys had lower mean z-scores for the variables height-for-age (p<0.05) and weight-for-height (p<0.01). Older children had significantly lower mean z-scores for height-for-age (p<0.001) but higher mean z-scores for weight-for-height (P<0.001) than younger children. This finding indicates that with increasing age, stunting is associated with improved weight-for-height or that the children’s weights have been adapted to their short statures. In conclusion, results demonstrate a high prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting and an increasing prevalence of overweight among these low-income school children. Efforts recommended to address health and nutrition problems among school children should include health and nutrition monitoring (e.g. growth monitoring using the existing growth data collected by schools) and interventions.
Energy and nutrient intake estimated using a pre-coded dietary history questionnaire (DHQ) was compared with results obtained from a 7-d weighed intake record (WI) in a group of 37 elderly Malays residing in rural areas of Mersing District, Johor, Malaysia to determine the validity of the DHQ. The DHQ consists of a pre-coded dietary history with a qualitative food frequency questionnaire which was developed to obtain information on food intake and usual dietary habits. The 7-d WI requires subjects to weigh each food immediately before eating and to weigh any leftovers. The medians of intake from the two methods were rather similar and varied by less than 30% for every nutrient, except for vitamin C (114%). For most of the nutrients, analysis of group means using the Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank sum test showed no significant difference between the estimation of intake from the DHQ and from the WI, with the exceptions of vitamin C and niacin. The DHQ significantly overestimated the intake of vitamin C compared to the WI (p<0.05), whilst, the intake of niacin was significantly underestimated (p<0.05). The consistency of ranking as assessed using the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r) was satisfactory since there were positive correlations between all of the investigated nutrients estimated using the DHQ with those assessed using the WI, except for niacin. Furthermore, both the DHQ and the WI classified approximately 38 to 62% of the subjects into the same tertile for all nutrients, except vitamin C. Therefore, the DHQ was modified by adding a checklist of foods rich in vitamin C and niacin. In conclusion, the DHQ was fairly valid for obtaining the usual intake of most nutrients, particularly on a group basis. These findings indicate that in an elderly population with a high prevalence of illiteracy, a specially designed DHQ can provide very similar estimations to that obtained from 7-d WI.
A nutritional status study was carried out among Chinese preschoolers (4— 6 years old) residing in Subang Jaya, Selangor. 91 preschoolers (48 boys and 43 girls) of Chinese descent participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements such as weight and height were taken and compared with the NCHS reference. Food habits and demographic background were also evaluated. The results indicated that the prevalence of underweight, wasting and stunting was 2% respectively, while the prevalence of overweight was 3%. Food habits data showed that most preschoolers consumed the daily main meals and snack once a day. Fruits were consumed between three to four times per week. Food items preferred by these preschoolers were milk, fish and fruits. In general, preschoolers in this study favoured foods, which were deep fried rather than steamed or roasted. Correlation analysis showed that there was no significant relationship between income, education of parents and anthropometric index (weight for age, height for age and weight for height). The nutritional status of these preschool children in Subang Jaya was satisfactory.
Thirty-two samples of chocolate products were analysed by HPLC for caffeine and theobromine contents. Defatted residues of samples were extracted with 80% aqueous acetone. After extraction into boiling water, the methylxanthines were identified and quantified with the use of µ-Bondapak column and mobile phase of methanol:water:acetic acid (20:79:1). Levels of caffein and theobromine in 32 samples of chocolate products averaged 0.62-1.14 mg/g and 0.026-0.153 mg/g respectively. Mean values for theobromine and caffeine content for chocolate coating were 0.82 and 0.07 mg/g respectively. The chocolate coating made from fat substitute had theobromine and caffeine levels ranging from 0.36-0.70 mg/g and 0.027-0.061 mg/g respectively, with mean values of 0.49 mg theobromine/g and 0.039 mg caffeine/g. In local chocolate, the mean theobromine and caffeine levels respectively were 0.72 mg/g and 0.04 mg/g in milk chocolate, and 0.85 mg/g and 0.06 mg/g in dark chocolate. Meanwhile, for imported chocolate, the mean theobromine and caffeine levels respectively were 1.05 mg/g and 0.12 mg/g in dark chocolate; 0.76 mg/g and 0.04 mg/g in milk chocolate; and 0.74 mg/g and 0.03 mg/g in white chocolate. Compared with the local chocolates, imported chocolates had higher levels of theobromine and caffeine at 1.141 mg/g and 0.1533mg/g. The average theobromine and caffeine concentrations in local chocolate were 0.082mg/g and 0.066mg/g. Theobromine concentration in chocolate samples is within the range of 0.62mg/g-1.141mg/g and the range of caffeine concentration is 0.026mg/g-0.153mg/g respectively. Bittersweet chocolates were found to have higher theobromine and caffeine concentrations than normal sweet chocolates and milk chocolates.
The objective of this study was to identify the effect of different drying methods on vitamin A activity of formulated weaning food. Weaned foods on vitamin A activity of formulated using treated cowpea flour, locally available rice flour, banana-pumpkin, skim milk powder and sugar in the ratio 35:35:15:15:5. Treated cowpea flour consisted of original cowpea flour, 24 h germinated cowpea flour. Each treated flour was mixed separately with the other ingredients and cooked into a slurry. Each mixture was either oven-dried or freeze-dried to produce a dry flaky mixture. The carotenoid composition of the product was determined by HPLC. Vitamin A activity of oven-dried weaning food was significantly reduced (p<0.05) compared to freeze-dried weaning food. The freeze-dried weaning foods showed a higher retinol equivalent than oven-dried weaning foods for all treatments. The results of the study found that an intake of 100 g of freeze-dried weaning foods enriched with banana-pumpkin and cowpea flour provided an adequate amount of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of vitamin A for infants.
Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji perkaitan di antara pengambilan kalsium dan faktor-faktor gaya hidup dengan status kesihatan tulang di kalangan 56 wanita selepas menopause di Kelab Warga Tua Evergreen, Petaling Jaya. Teknik pensampelan bertujuan digunakan untuk pemilihan sample kajian. Kepadatan mineral tulang (KMT) di bahagian femur proksimal dan lumbar L2-L4 diukur melalui kaedah Dual Energy X-ray Absorptionmetry (DEXA) di klinik KVOTC, Subang Jaya. Sesi temubual dijalankan berpandukan borang soal selidik dan diikuti dengan pengukuran antropometri. Hasil kajian menunjukkan min umur responden ialah 64.0 tahun. Min berat badan dan ketinggian responden ialah masing-masing 53.7kg dan 1.55meter. Secara keseluruhannya, min indeks jisim tubuh (IJT) di kalangan responden adalah memuaskan (22.4 kg/m²) dengan hanya 17.9% dikategorikan sebagai berlebihan berat badan (>25 kg/m²). Min pengambilan kalsium keseluruhan ialah 807.31 mg dan kira-kira 76.2% disumbangkan daripada pengambilan makanan. Kebanyakan responden (83.9%) dapat memenuhi saranan pengambilan kalsium mengikut RDA untuk Malaysia. Min KMT pada bahagian lumbar, leher, wards dan trokanter ialah 0.983 ± 0.178 g/cm², 0.745 ± 0.126 g/cm², 0.604 ± 0.150 g/cm² dan 0.674 ± 0.127 g/cm² masing-masing. Kira-kira 32.1% responden dikategorikan osteoporosis pada bahagian wards, manakala 10.7% masing-masing diklasifikasikan osteoporosis pada bahagian lumbar L2-L4 dan leher femur. Hampir separuh responden mengalami jisim tulang rendah pada leher (53.6%) dan wards (50.0%), dan di bahagian femur proksimal dan bahagian lumbar L2-L4 (53.6%). Ujian pekali Pearson menunjukkan korelasi negatif yang signifikan di antara umur dengan KMT pada bahagian leher (r = -0.419, p<0.01) dan wards (r = -0.356, p<0.01). Bagi IJT, terdapat perkaitan positif yang signifikan dengan KMT pada bahagian leher (r = 0.299, p<0.05) dan trokanter (r = 0.297, p<0.05). Selain itu, kekuatan genggaman tangan kanan meningkat secara signifikan dengan KMT pada bahagian leher (r = 0.498, p<0.001), wards (r = 0.394, p<0.01) dan trokanter (r = 0.369, p<0.01), sementara KMT pada bahagian leher (r = 0.291, p<0.05) sahaja menunjukkan perkaitan yang signifikan dengan kekuatan genggaman tangan kiri. Terdapat perkaitan negatif yang signifikan di antara jangkamasa selepas menopaus dengan KMT pada bahagian leher (r = -0.419, p<0.01) dan wards (r = -0.363, p<0.01). Pengambilan suplemen kalsium mempunyai perkaitan positif yang signifikan dengan KMT pada bahagian lumbar (r = 0.302, p<0.05). Secara keseluruhannya, jumlah pengambilan kalsium meningkat secara signifikan dengan KMT pada bahagian trokanter (0.265, p<0.05), wards (r = 0.296, p<0.05) dan lumbar (r = 0.338, p<0.05). Bagi aktiviti fizikal pula, jangkamasa melakukan aktiviti fizikal dalam seminggu meningkat secara signifikan dengan KMT pada semua bahagian femur iaitu wards (r = 0.277, p<0.05), leher (r = 0.315, p<0.05) dan trokanter (r = 0.878, p<0.05) dan bahagian lumbar (r = 0.531, p<0.05). Walau bagaimanapun, tiada perkaitan yang signifikan di antara jumlah kafeina yang diambil sehari dengan KMT. Hasil kajian ini menunjukkan bahawa peningkatan pengambilan kalsium dan aktiviti fizikal adalah penting untuk memperbaiki dan memelihara jisim tulang di kalangan wanita selepas menopause. Oleh itu, program-program pendidikan kesihatan dan pemakanan yang sesuai dapat dirangka untuk mencegah penyakit osteoporosis bagi mereka yang berisiko tinggi.
New Conceptual Thinking about Surveillance: Using Micronutrient Status to Assess the Impact of Economic Crises on Health and Nutrition Linnda Kiess, Regina Moench-Phanner, Martin W. Bloem, Saskia de Pee, Mayang Sari, and Soewarta Kosen